Speech Science Week 2: The Articulatory System
Speech Science Week 2: The Articulatory System SLP5120
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Freya Kniaz on Monday August 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SLP5120 at Wayne State University taught by Li Hsieh in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Speech Science in Linguistics and Speech Pathology at Wayne State University.
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Date Created: 08/15/16
Speech Science 1 Chapter Three: TheArticulatory System I. Introduction 1. Articulation: process whereby the structures within the vocal tract modify exhaled air to shape specific speech sounds (phonemes) 2. We modify the sound wave traveling through the vocal tract by moving the articulators to different locations and positions, giving the sound specific characteristics that are recognized as distinctive phonemes II. TheArticulators of the Vocal Tract 1. The vocal tract is a hollow muscular tube about seventeen centimeters long 1. consists of the pharynx, oral cavity, and nasal cavities 2. three important features of the vocal tract: it is shaped like a bent tube (oral/nasal cavities horizontal and pharynx vertical), the shape is highly irregular and complex, and the tract is variable in its shape 3. It is a interrelated system of movable and immovable structures that form a series of valves that can open or close either partially or completely 1. Valves: tongue, velum, 2. The Oral Cavity 1. Boundaries of the oral cavity: lips (movable – anterior), cheeks (lateral), palate (superior), tongue (movable – inferior) 2. Important features for articulation: lips are the movable exit for speech, it contains many articulators, the shape of the oral cavity is altered during speech (important to resonance) 3. Lips 1. Lips are formed of muscle, mucous membrane, glandular tissues, and fat (all covered by a layer of epithelium) 2. Superior labial frenulum: small flap of tissue that connects the midline of the alveolar region to inner surface of the upper lip 3. Inferior labial frenulum: small flap of tissues that connects the midline of the mandible to the inner surface of the lower lip 4. Orbicularis oris: main muscle of the lips, a circular sphincteric muscle surrounding both the upper and lower lips 1. Many other muscles insert onto the orbicularis oris 1. Elevators insert on the upper lip and raise it: levator labii superioris, levator anguli oris, zygomaticus major and minor, and risorius 2. Depressors insert around the lower lip and lower it: depressor anguli oris, depressor labii inferioris, and mentalis 2. The lips are very important for articulation, but they are also crucial for mastication, acting to keep food and liquid within the mouth 4. Mandible: large bone of the lower jaw 1. Temporalmandibular joint: attaches the mandible to the skull by a joint formed between the condylar process and the temporal bone. 2. The mandible can be portruded, retracted, and moved from side to side 3. The jaw and lips often work as a unit in the production of bilabial sounds such as /p and b/. 5. Teeth 1. Children have 20 teeth and adults have 32. 2. There are four types of teeth: incisors, canines, premolars, and molars. Speech Science 2 3. Teeth are embedded in spaces called alveoli. 4. Teeth serve as immovable articulators against which the tongue can form connections, and they also help to channel the flow of air and sound waves for some types of phonemes 5. Primary function: mastication 6. Dental occlusion: refers to the relationship between the upper and lower dental arches and the positioning of individual teeth 1. Maloclussion: problems in upper and lower dental arch position and tooth relationships 1. Class I occlusion (neutroclusion): normal occlusal relationship, where the first permanent molar of the upper jaw is positioned one half tooth behind the firs permanent molar of the upper jaw 2. Class II occlusion (distoclusion or overjet): the first molar is posterior to the normal position, resulting in the mandible being pulled back 1. micrognathia: a structural problem in which the mandible is small in relation to the maxilla 3. Class III occlusion (mesioclusion): the first molar is anterior to the nomral position, also called a prognathic jaw and is often found in craniofacial disorders 6. Hard Palate: a complex bony structure lined with epithelium, it makes up the roof of the oral cavity and the floor of the nasal cavity 1. It serves as a barrier between the oral and nasal cavities, preventing food, air, and sound waves from escaping the oral cavity 2. Important for /ʃ, ʒ, and r/ sounds 3. Palatine process: anterior ¾ of the hard palate and articulate with the other bones of the skill 1. joined together at the midline and articulate at the intermaxillary suture 4. Palatine bones of the skull: posterior one-quarter of the hard palate 5. Transverse palatine suture: joins the palatine bones and the palatine processes 6. Alveolar ridge: raised ridge running from side to side toward the anterior of the hard palate, just behind the upper teeth 1. Important for /t d s z l and n/ 7. Affected by cleft palate or other craniofacial abnormalities 7. Soft Palate (Velum) 1. Posterior to the hard palate, made of muscle and other soft tissues (no bone) 2. Aponeurosis: long flat tendon that attaches the velum to the posterior portion of the hard palate 3. The velum rests down into the pharynx and creates an optional passageway between the velum and and the posterior pharyngeal wall (velopharyngeal passage) 4. Important for the /m, n, and ɳ/ sounds 5. Hypernasality: excessive nasal resonance caused by air escaping through the nasal cavities 6. Hyponasality: insufficient nasal resonance caused by the prevention of airflow through the nasal cavities 7. There are five muscles of the velum: 1. Levator veli palatini: its sling-like shape makes up most of the velum, raises it 2. Musculus uvuli: located on the nasal surface, bunches it up and raises it 3. Tensor veli palatini: opens the eustachian tube to equalize pressure while swallowing Speech Science 3 4. Palatoglossus: depresses the velum or elevates the tongue, forms anterior faucial pillars 5. Palatopharyngeus: narrows pharyngeal cavity (helping guide food during swallowing), forms posterior faucial pillars 8. Anterior and posterior faucial pillars mark the posterior boundary of the oral cavity 9. In order to close, the velum pulls itself up and back, but the pharynx must move itself as well. 10. There are four types of velopharyngeal closure, but individuals tend to use one more often. 1. Coronal: Mostly velar with a small amount of Lateral Pharyngeal Wall movement 2. Sagittal: Mostly LPW with a small amount of velar movement 3. Circular: approximately equal contribution between velum and LPW 4. Circular with Passavant's Ridge: Movement of velum and LPW plus forward movement of Passavant's pad on the posterior pharyngeal wall 8. Tongue 1. Essential in chewing, swallowing, and speaking 2. Most important and most active articulator 3. It acts as a resonator by changing the shape of the oral cavities and as a valve by contacting or closely approximating other articulators 4. Muscular hydrostat: muscular organs that do not have a skeleton of cartilage or bone but provide their own support through muscular contraction 1. This allows each of the muscles of the tongue to act semi-independently 5. Tip (apex): the most anterior portion of the tongue 6. Blade: part of the tongue that lies below when it is at rest 7. Front: part of the tongue that lies below the hard palate 8. Back: part of the tongue that lies below the soft palate 9. Dorsum: broad superior portion of the tongue 10. Body: the major mass of the tongue 11. The oral surface of the tongue makes up 2/3 of the total surface of the tongue 12. Median sulcus: divides the tongue left to right, provides a place for origination 13. Lingual frenulum: band of connective tissue joining the inferior tongue and the mandible 14. Intrinsic muscle: both attachments within the tongue itself 1. Superior longitudinal: elevates tip, hyoid bone/median septum to lateral margins/apex 2. Inferior longitudinal: pulls down tip and retracts tongue, root of tongue/hyoid bone, to apex 3. Transverse: pulls edges toward midline to narrow tongue, median septum of tongue dorsum to lateral margins of the submucous tissue 4. Vertical: pulls down tongue, mucous membrane of tongue dorsum to lateral/inferior surfaces of tongue 15. Extrinsic muscle: one attachment in the tongue and one in a structure external to the tongue 1. Genioglossus: anterior fibers retract tongue, posterior fibers draw tongue forward; inner surface of mandible to tip/dorsum of tongue to hyoid bone 2. Hyoglossus: pulls down sides of tongue, hyoid to lateral margins of tongue 3. Palatoglossus: elevates back of tongue, front/sides of palatal aponeurosis to lateral Speech Science 4 margins of posterior tongue 4. Styloglossus: elevates/retracts tongue to styloid process of temporal bone to lateral margins of tongue 16. The ability to move in different ways allows for a wide range of tongue positions and configurations during speech 17. The four basic patterns of tongue movements for speech: 1. Raising of the blade with simultaneous lowering of the dorsum – alveolar and palatal 2. Raising the body – palatal /j/ phoneme 3. Raising the dorsum – velar sounds 4. Raising the anterior blade with lowering of the body – lateral /l/ phoneme 18. The tongue must form the bolus, push it back to the posterior oral cavity, directs bolus into pharyngeal cavity, and move it down toward the esophagus 19. Papillae contain taste buds III. The Pharynx: hollow tube made of muscle, connective tissue, and mucous linign, running behind the nasal cavities, oral cavity, and larynx 1. Divided into nasopharynx, oropharynx, and laryngopharynx 2. Pharyngeal constrictors: fan-shaped muscles that overlap one another rather like shingles 1. Inferior constrictor: largest and strongest pharyngeal constrictor 3. Cricopharyngeus: arises from cricoid cartilage and forms a ring around the top opening of the esophagus (pharygo esophageal segment) 1. It is always constricted and relaxes during swallowing 4. Nasal septum: divides the nasal cavity 5. Nasal conchae: three tiny structures (inferior, middle, and superior) form each side of the nose 6. Four valves: labial valve, lingual valve, velopharyngeal valve, and the laryngeal valve IV. Traditional Classification System of Consonants and Vowels 1. Consonants of a language are defined by place, manner, and voicing. 2. Places of Articulation: 1. Bilabial: lips make contact or approximate 2. Labiodental: upper teeth to lower lip 3. Interdental: tongue between upper and lower lips 4. Alveolar: tongue contacts or approximates alveolar ridge 5. Palatal: tongue approximates hard palate 6. Velar: tongue contacts velum 7. Glottal: vocal folds approximate slightly 3. Manners ofArticulation: 1. Stops: oral cavity obstructed, oral pressure built up and released under high pressure 2. Fricatives: vocal tract constricted, pressure released gradually 3. Affricates: begins as a stop with pressure built up, pressure gradually released like a fricative 4. Nasal: velopharyngeal port open, obstruction within the oral cavity, air released through nasal cavities 5. Glides: quick tongue movement from front to back or back to front 6. Liquids: partial obstruction of oral cavity, allowing air to move around the obstruction 4. Cognates: sounds that differ only in voicing 5. Review vowel quadrilateral V. Acoustic Characteristics of Vowels and Consonants Speech Science 5 1. Spectography: method of identifying frequency, amplitude, and duration of sounds 1. Displayed on a spectrogram 2. We will do this through PRAAT 2. Spectrography is based on using a filter to scan all the frequencies in a sound and the acoustic energy present at each frequency 1. Narrowband spectrogram: uses a filter of 45-50 Hz, will respond to each harmonic in the vocal signal separately; therefore reveal the harmonic structure of a sound produced by the glottal source 2. Wideband spectrogram: uses a filter of 300-500 Hz, detects many harmonics in the glottal source and adds them together 1. Formants: broad horizontal bands of strong acoustic energy when the harmonics are added together 1. The center of each energy band is estimated as the center frequency of the formant which corresponds to the resonant frequency of the vocal tract, and the range of frequencies in the band is taken to be the bandwidth 2. They show the formant structure of sounds such as vowels and the filtering function of the vocal tract 3. The speaker's fundamental frequency is indicated by the vertical lines at the bottom of the spectrogram, with each line representing one cycle of vocal fold vibrations 4. It can also represent aperiodic sounds created within the vocal tract 3. Vowels articulation is related to tongue position within the vocal tract 1. Corner vowels: /i, u, a, and æ/, produced with the tongue as far as possible from the neutral tongue 2. Vowels are periodic complex sounds characterized acoustically by their first three formants (which appear as wide, dark horizontal stripes) 3. Monophthongs: pure vowels that are produced with a relatively constant tongue position 1. Front vowels: formants 1 and 2 are spaced widely apart, while 2 and 3 are close together (/i/ is most extreme) 2. Back vowels: formants 1 and 2 are close together, with a much higher frequency third formant 3. Central vowels: show more equally spaced relationship between the formants 4. Diphthongs: a vowel that changes its resonance characteristics during its production 1. Onglide: the starting point for the first vowel of the diphthong 2. Offglide: the end point of the diphthong 3. Formant transitions: the shift of frequency of formants caused by the changing tongue position during a diphthong 5. Nasals 1. Nasal murmur: corresponds to the interval during which the oral closure coincides with the open velopharyngeal port 1. Characterized by antiformants and a nasal formants 2. The closed oral cavity becomes a side-branch resonator or shunt resonator 1. The air becomes divided with some flowing into the nasal cavity and some into the blocked oral cavity 3. The air in the oral cavity creates antiformants, as some of the sound energy is trapped and prevented from being resonated 4. Antiformants: vocal tract antiresonances that act as stop-band filters that have a Speech Science 6 damping effect on harmonic frequencies within their bandwidths 1. They look like extremely weak intensity formants, their frequency is determined by the point of blockage 5. Nasal Formant: low in frequency because of the relatively large volume of the coupled pharyngeal and nasal cavities, the most intense portion of the nasal murmur 6. Since the nasal cavity does not change for each sound, the resonating characteristics are essentially the same for all nasal sounds 6. Glides 1. Sometimes classified as semivowels and belong to a class of sounds called sonorants 2. Sonorants: always voiced, and the airflow is not completely smooth and laminar, but neither is it turbulent 3. Quick tongue movements result in rapidly changing formant frequencies, glides do not show steady-state portions like diphthongs 4. Glide formants often look like transitions between two other sounds 7. Liquids 1. /r and l/ are both sonorant sounds, but they have steady-state formants (the tongue does not move during the sound) 2. /r/ is retroflexed and lowers formant three 3. /l/ is produced by contact between the tongue tip and alveolar ridge with enough space at the sides of the tongue allowing air to flow around the blockage 1. The oral cavity becomes a shunt resonator and therefore /l/ has formants and antiformants 2. /l/ is easily influenced by surrounding vowels 8. Stops 1. Stops create a complex aperiodic transient sound 2. The manner in which stops are articulated results in four characteristic acoustic features: 1. Silent gap: time during which the articulators are forming the blockage and the oral pressure is building up 1. In voiceless stops, this cannot be seen on the spectrogram when it is initial (when it is medial or final, it is a blank space between the preceding sound and the stop) 2. Voice bar: a band of low-frequency energy that may appear during the silent gap, it is an indication that vocal fold vibration is occurring during articulatory closure and pressure buildup 2. Release burst: a brief interval of aperiodic sound which follows the silent gap 1. It appears as a vertical line extending into the high frequencies 2. Bursts are seen for stops in the initial and medial position (stops general do not have bursts in final position inAmerican English, but may in some British dialects) 3. Front cavity: /t and d/ have a small area of constriction which acts as a high-pass filter that emphasizes the higher frequency components in the noise source 4. The bursts of voiceless stops are longer in duration than those of voiced stops because they are characterized by aspiration Speech Science 7 5. Aspiration: noise generated by turbulence as air moves through the glottis during the time in which the vocal folds are starting to close for the following voiced sounds and causes a delay in glottal closure 3. Voice onset time: the time between the release of the articulatory blockage (corresponding spectrographically to the beginning of the burst) to the beginning of vocal fold vibration for the following vowel 1. Differentiates the difference between voiced and voiceless stops 2. Indicates the coordination between the laryngeal and articulatory systems 3. It is measured in initial stops and its values fall into on of four categories: 1. Negative (prevoicing VOT lead): indicates that the vocal folds are vibrating before the articulatory release takes place 2. Zero: involves simultaneous voicing in which voice onset and articulatory release occur at the same time 3. Short lag: onset of vocal fold vibration follows shortly after the release burst 4. Long lag: vocal fold vibration is delayed for a relatively long period of time after the articulatory release 4. The production of proper VOT is a developmental skill, young children generally have a short lag due to amount of motor coordination required 1. Appropriate VOT time develops around eleven years 2. Those in the elderly population generally have greater VOT times than younger speakers 5. While VOT occurs in stops in all languages, there are some differences between languages 4. Formant transitions: formants as the articulators move from the constricted position of the stop to the more open position of the preceding or following vowel 1. The slope (increases, decreases, or stays the same) is determined by the place of articulation of the stop and the vocal tract positioning for the following sound 2. Refer to Table 3.11 on page 112 9. Fricatives: produced when pressurized air becomes turbulent, resulting in random variations in air pressure 1. Frication: aperiodic noise, the acoustic result of turbulent airflow (sounds like hissing) 2. On a spectrogram, a fricative looks like a wide band of acoustic energy distributed over a broad range of frequencies 3. The specific range and intensity of the fricative depends on the place of articulation 1. Some aperiodic complex sound will be reinforced, some may be attentuated, according to the place of articulation 4. The size of the front resonating cavity shapes the resulting spectrum because the smaller the size is, the higher the resonant frequency of the cavity 5. Stridents (Sibilants): /s, z, ʃ, and ʒ/ which are much more intense 6. Fricatives require a high degree of neuromuscular control of the tongue and are therefore acquired later than stops 7. See Table 3.12 on page 114 Speech Science 8 10. Affricates: made by quickly combining a stop with a fricative 1. They have a silent gap in the beginning (generally associated with stops), frication follows 2. Affricates and fricatives look very similar on a spectrogram, the difference is that affricates are shorter in duration VI. The Productions of Speech Sounds in Context 1. Coarticulation: ways in which two or more articulators move at virtually at the same time to produce two or more different phonemes almost simultaneously 1. Individual segments influence (before – anticipatory coarticulation – or after – carryover coarticulation) each other and modify the acoustic characteristics of adjacent sounds 2. Rather than a sound being produced in a sequence, sounds are produced in an overlapping manner 3. Vowels before a nasal consonant are nasalized 4. Varies greatly between individual speakers 2. Suprasegmental characteristics: intonation, stress, and duration of specific sounds; it continuously changes 1. Intonation: the way in which speakers vary their F0 levels to signal linguistic aspects of speech such as the type of utterance (declarative, question, etc.) 1. Often referred to as the F0 contour or pitch contour 2. Drops at the ends of sentences relates to the physiology of coordinating speech breathing with phonation 1. Breath groups: a phrase or sentence that is produced on one exhalation. 2. Example: subglottal pressure stays fairly steady until the last portion of the utterance, then it drops dramatically 3. Raising pitch at the end (such as in questions) requires a great deal of neuromuscular control 4. To study this track F0 2. Stress: varying the frequency, intensity, and duration of a syllable or word in a way that highlights a particular portion of an utterance 1. Stress patterns vary among languages 2. Lexical stress: stress that signals the meaning of a word (think PREsent versus preSENT) 3. Stressed syllables are more clear and distinct than unstressed syllables 4. Vowel reduction: when the formant patterns of a vowel become neutralized 1. Common in communication disorders due to deafness, neurological problems, and others 3. Duration: length of time of a speech sound, varies with the degree of stress on the syllable/word or inherently due to the way they are articulated 1. Can be a cue to voicing 1. Example: in English, vowels are longer when they come before a voiced consonant than when the same vowel precedes a voiceless consonant (hid v. hit) 2. The duration of a syllable or word in the stream of connected speech is associated with complete units of meaning 1. Last words in a phrase tend to be longer (helps determine boundaries)
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