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Discussion 1

by: Alissa Coonfield

Discussion 1 BIO 3525

Alissa Coonfield
GPA 3.71

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Lecture/class notes from first week.
Dr. Iyengar
Class Notes
ACS, villanova
25 ?




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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alissa Coonfield on Tuesday August 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 3525 at Villanova University taught by Dr. Iyengar in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Entomology in Biology at Villanova University.


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Date Created: 08/16/16
Thursday, January 21, 2016. Presenter- Kyle Krutis Recap In the first class we discussed the idea of creation and the multiple references to creation present in the earlier tablets of Gilgamesh. This text predates the Old Testament, so we compared and contrasted portions of the two. Characterization of Gilgamesh & Enkidu Initial Characteristics Gilgamesh:  Has no equal on earth  Physically very strong  2/3 divine and 1/3 man  Has a certain amount of great, all-knowing wisdom- in respect to the world and creation  Overly ambitious- to a fault  Very arrogant, and knows how awesome he is. Enkidu:  Half man and half beast  Formed out of clay  Attains wisdom and reason through Shamhat the harlot. Kyle: When Enkidu meets with Shamhat, the 50/50 (man/beast) becomes closer to 60/40. Kyle: Do you think there are or will be any drastic changes in characterization? If so, how? AUV: Both characters change a lot over the course of the story. Enkidu does not appear to be equal to Gilgamesh. Gianna: Gilgamesh seems superior- Enkidu helps Gilgamesh, and he lets him kill the monster Humbaba. There is also a certain role reversal that occurs. Before they depart for their journey, Gilgamesh reassures Enkidu, who is very afraid. When Gilgamesh has the nightmares while they are on that journey, Enkidu is the one that comforts and reassures him. Scott: Going back to the term “side-kick”, Enkidu is more like Gilgamesh’s exalted helper. Gilgamesh is more the hero in this story, and therefore the two are unequal. Overview Former enemies conquer a beast- What occurs is far more than a journey. A friendship is formed. This friendship changes both Gilgamesh and Enkidu. They conquer many beasts together (Humbaba and the Bull of Heaven), but they earn more than the prizes from these kills. They form a bond and develop more as characters. The Price of Trust Tablet IV: (pg 32) lines 12-24 Gilgamesh and Enkidu rise to the occasion and venture into the Cedar forest. What they acquire is more important than the monster’s life. When Gilgamesh has his first nightmare on the journey, Enkidu reassures and comforts him. AUV: A friendship is being formed through the counsel Enkidu is giving Gilgamesh. Kyle: Enkidu becomes committed to the cause and acts with compassion. This shows that Enkidu and Gilgamesh are no longer enemies. Kyle: Will this friendship last? Hunter: Yes it will. They continue to work together to defeat both Humbaba and the Bull of Heaven. AUV: is the friendship one-sided? Kyle: The friendship is seeming more genuine over time. AUV: Aristotle wrote about three types of friendship:  Friendship of Pleasure  Friendship of Utility  Friendship of Virtue All friendships consist of certain types of goals. In this friendship, Gilgamesh is receiving a lot more than he is giving. Sarah: Virtuous friendships are very rare: The two must be similar in character as well as virtue. The only common denominator they have is their equal power. AUV: friendships of virtue take a long time to develop. There must be some respect, and they must be equal. Mary Beth: They have not formed a virtuous relationship yet. Also, Enkidu’s counselling of Gilgamesh seems more like an obligation. They went out on this journey and he’s making sure that they succeed. “We’re in this, man. Get it together.” Kyle: Their friendship is for the greater good of Uruk. Does this make it one of utility or is it becoming a virtuous friendship? AUV: Enkidu seems more mature than Gilgamesh. He also has a moral code. Scott: They seem more like colleagues than friends. Gilgamesh is very straight-forward. Enkidu does not want want to step on his toes, so he takes the back seat. Jaclyn: They need each other because they are pursuing a common goal. Enkidu need Gilgamesh for his physical strength, and Gilgamesh need Enkidu for motivation and support. They bring out different traits in each other. AUV: We didn’t see the fearful side of Gilgamesh until Enkidu made his grand entrance. Lizzie: Enkidu is more of a mentor than a friend. Gilgamesh is reckless, and Enkidu acts as his conscience. AUV: Why is Humbaba a special beast?  He is the designated protector of Gate of the Cedar (similar to how Gilgamesh protects the Gate of Uruk)  Enlil (divine ruler of Earth and its inhabitants) appointed him to protect the timber.  He has 7 auras. By killing Humbaba, Gilgamesh and Enkidu are threatening the divine order. Pg 46-47: The two heroes celebrate their victory and attempt to make the moment sacred. They chop down timber, and Enkidu swears to make a door from one of the mightiest trees for the God Enlil. He says “Let the God Enlil take delight in it”. Logan: Irony- they are building a tribute for the god of the trees in the forest that he created Humbaba to protect. AUV: In this way they commit sacrilege. Meghan: The 2/3 divine part of Gilgamesh never had an equal and spurs him to take on more dangerous parts of the world. The 1/3 man part is reckless and afraid. He tends to bite off more than he can chew. Sarah: Gilgamesh takes on this tasks as a way of proving himself. Kyle: When faced with Humbaba, Gilgamesh tries to run away and Enkidu reassures him. This could indicate that Gilgamesh’s ambition is proving to be his fault. Kyle: If Enkidu weren’t there, would Gilgamesh have followed through with the task? Scott: There are similarities between Enkidu and Lady Macbeth in the sense that the protagonist (Gilgamesh or Macbeth) would not have been able to follow through with their given task. -> Enkidu is more important than Gilgamesh realizes AUV: Tablet VI: line 95-105 “Deluge”: creating the flood- could be a metaphor for killing/eliminating/neutralizing an unwanted force/enemy. Ishtar:  “Daddy’s girl”: She is given everything, and asks for everything. o Tablet IV pg 52- Ishtar runs to her father Anu after Gilgamesh denies her. She says she wants the Bull of Heaven to destroy Gilgamesh, and if she doesn’t get it she’ll raise the dead and make them walk on earth.  Very sensitive: Could say how sensitive the gods are and foreshadow more danger to come.  Has doomed past lovers Women in Gilgamesh:  Women are used primarily for sex and are treated as property.  Ninsun is the only respected female in this epic, and she acts as either a mother or a prostitute.  Female characters have a simplicity about them.  Women are the undoing of men. o Compromise the power of men (example: Shamhat weakened Enkidu) Perhaps Gilamesh fears he will lose his power (divinity, political power, physical power, or masculinity) if he were to be with a woman of higher power. Gianna: Maybe Enkidu is the sidekick because he has been “defiled” by a woman. AUV: From Shamhat Enkidu was weakened but he also obtained reason and a moral compass. Would he have this moral compass if he hadn’t been with Shamhat? Kyle: Enkidu’s quick thinking is what saves Gilgamesh from the Bull of Heaven, and Enkidu also banishes Ishtar from Uruk. AUV: Possible Eroticism between Gilgamesh and Enkidu:  “The comeliest of men”- the beauty of men  Display affection: Many times Gilgamesh and Enkidu are holding hands, and when they first become friends they kiss.  In this time period homoeroticism is very common. o Men have more power and respect than women in this time, so it makes sense that men would seek relationships with individuals of the same power level. AUV: Hamartia: Greek term for fatal flaw  Example: Oedipus- his fatal flaw is his anger.  In the case of Gilgamesh, it is his overwhelming ambition coupled with fear and doubt. Gilgamesh’s fear only becomes apparent in the most important moments. This could be because he is aware of his mortality. Matt: pg 41. “Don’t draw back, don’t retreat. Make your blow mighty.” Initially Gilgamesh is overly ambitious. When he experiences a pivotal moment in which he is faced with danger, however, his ambition falls short and he need motivation. Scott: Gilgamesh gained confidence because he is so powerful among mortals. However he is now facing stronger beings and doesn’t understand the reality of the situation until he is facing it head on. AUV: People strive to do great things because of their fear of mortality. Enkidu does not seem to have this fear, while Gilgamesh does. Logan: Gilgamesh’s doubt and fear coincides with the rise of Enkidu, when he realizes that he isn’t untouchable after all. “Some guy came along and nearly bested him.” Until then he hadn’t experienced limits with his power. Kyle: Will Gilgamesh openly recognize Enkidu as his equal? Consensus: He won’t come out and say it because he is too arrogant and proud. AUV: Enkidu represents an initial break in Gilgamesh’s undoubted confidence. From then on Gilgamesh’s foundation is shaken. Limits of Power: Example: celebrities live with constant reassurance, and no one tells them otherwise (life in a bubble). They never sense that they could be wrong or have limits. Gilgamesh is beginning to grasp the concept of limits. Kyle: Is the change in Gilgamesh’s character for the better? Logan: Three tiers of being 1. Divinity 2. Humanity 3. Beasts and Monsters Initially Enkidu fell between humanity and beasts while Gilgamesh fell between divinity and humanity. Ever since they became close, both of them have been trending toward to humanity. AUV: Does having a moral compass come with being a part of humanity?  Enkidu gained a moral compass when he became ‘civilized’. Gilgamesh lacks a moral compass because he is 2/3 divine. Power and Morality  Subjective Morality: Power dictating morality o God is seen as an all-powerful being. Anything God does is good because he is God. o With power comes morality  Objective Morality: There is a standard to which God must adhere. o G.W. Leitniz: God must have power as well as understanding. The two are equally important. o There is a morality outside of God and power. Gilgamesh is powerful but does not recognize morality. Final question: When Enkidu dies, is Gilgamesh beginning to change?


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