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Immunology Overview from BISC 162

by: Mary Paige

Immunology Overview from BISC 162 Bisc 414

Marketplace > University of Mississippi > Biology > Bisc 414 > Immunology Overview from BISC 162
Mary Paige

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About this Document

These notes cover the basic systems covered in biology previously.
Immunology and Serology
Dr. Robert Doctor
Class Notes
Biology, immunology
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mary Paige on Tuesday August 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bisc 414 at University of Mississippi taught by Dr. Robert Doctor in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Immunology and Serology in Biology at University of Mississippi.


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Date Created: 08/16/16
 Immunology: Animal Defense Systems o Chapter 42 o 2 types of immunity  Innate  things that your body was born ready to recognize and attack  You are ready to attack: Things that have not changed in a long time  Recognition of common dangers that haven't evolved much  Rapid response  It’s a battle between if it can replicate faster than you can send out defense  Weapons: antimicrobial proteins and leukocytes  Have barriers to infection that fight things off before they enter your system  STUDY THE TABLE IN THE TEXT THAT DESCRIBES VARIOUS PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL BARRIERS TO INFECTION  What happens when the barriers are breached?  Inflammatory response  Example of a needle piercing the skin and introducing bacteria  Cells are damaged by needle itself and send alarm signals (histamines)  Capillary under skin enlarges and becomes leaky to let out white blood cells and phagocytic cells that engulf the bacteria and our damaged cell  Capillary is enlarged and permeable  Skin swells, gets red, and gets hot because of increased blood flow here  Once all damaged cells and bacteria have been engulfed, capillary returns to normal size b/c no more histamine signal  "pus" may leak from wound because pushed out by pressure  This is cell fragments, dead phagocytes, and fluid from damaged area  Complement system  Consists of about 30 different proteins that circulate in the blood in an inactive form  They are designed to act a certain way toward certain signals (things that are common)  Adaptive immunity tags things and then complement protein destroys it  Proteins aggregate on surface of pathogen  Pathogen swells and bursts  Complement proteins insert themselves into the cell membrane of the invader and form a pore  Then water rushes into the cell and bursts the invader and destroys it  3 kinds of defending leukocytes  Macrophages  Kill microorganisms by digesting them (phagocytosis)  Neutrophils  Most abundant circulating leukocytes  Also uses phagocytosis  Natural killer cells  Are actually lymphocytes  Induce apoptosis (cell death) in target cell  Perforin and granzymes  DO NOT NEED TO KNOW ALL NAMES OF LEUKOCYTES BUT DO KNOW THE ONES MENTIONED IN LECTURE  Adaptive  Responds to new threats that have changed and try to infect us  Starts with recognition of "non-self" characteristics  Must figure out whether to attack or not and what to attack  Slower response but highly specific  Divided into 2 systems of response  Characterized by:  Relies on the recognition of specificity of antigen  Wide diversity of antigens(noncells) can be recognized  Uses memory  The immune system responds more quickly the second time it is introduced to a specific antigen  Ability to distinguish between self-antigens(our cells) and non-antigens(invading cells)  Antigen= a molecule that provokes a specific immune response  Comes from the phrase "antibody generating substance"  Pieces of micro-organisms or cells  Can be any chemical that isn't supposed to be in the body or the body thinks shouldn’t be in the body  Epitope= characteristic shape of antigen  ANTIGENS ARE RECOGNIZED BY THEIR EPITOPES  Each epitope can stimulate a distinct immune response  An antigen can have different shapes or epitopes  Cross-reactivity occurs when different antigens form the same epitope or a similar epitope of another antigen  Body reacts to defend against both antigens  2 types of adaptive immunity response  Humoral immunity  Infections in bodily fluids  Use B cell lymphocytes  B cell itself does not attack it makes and sends out antibodies  Produce antibodies (immunoglobulin proteins)  Antibodies circulate through the blood stream and act as surveillance  Naïve B cells have never met antigens  B cells are activated if receptor recognizes epitope  Clonal expansion(activated B cell clones itself to increase defense) and produce effector(plasma) and memory cells  Effector cells dump massive amounts of that antibody with that epitope into system to fight  Memory cells do nothing but store the info about that epitope for next time  Cell-mediated immunity  Can protect against Infections inside cells  Antibodies can only attack things outside of our cells  T cell lymphocytes attack infection directly and kills our own cells in order to kill the infection o Lymphocytes originated in bone marrow  B cells mature there and then move to lymph nodes, etc.  Called B cell because it matures in Bone marrow  Also because it was discovered in the butt of a chicken….  T cells move to thymus to mature and are then sent to patrol lymphatic and circulatory systems  Called T cells because they mature in the thymus o The lymphatic system (series of ducts with no pump; fluid is moved by the movement of muscles and backflow valves)  Collects interstitial fluid  Houses immune system  Tonsils, thymus, bone marrow, spleen, some cells of intestinal tract, and lymph nodes are parts of lymphatic system


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