Gen Bio I: Week 1
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Selen Nehrozoglu on Tuesday August 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 01:119:115 at Rutgers University taught by Dr. Gregory Transue in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views.
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Date Created: 08/16/16
Week 1 Lecture 1 1. Memory and Learning a. Nervous systems are made up of neurons and supporting cells b. Neuronal development: Period in which the general structure of the nervous system is created. i. Involves gene expression and signal transduction, meaning that the basic network of cells and connections within the nervous system are set. c. Neuronal Plasticity: Ability of nervous system to be modified after birth. i. Brain is dynamic, able to change constantly, so it can be remodeled ii. Synapses: Junction between neurons. This is where most of the brain remodeling occurs iii. These changes are actively dependent: one would need to constantly process the same information in order to maintain it; “practice” iv. With high “activity”, many connections are made in synapses, and vice versa. v. When there are multiple active synapses, all synapses have a stronger response. vi. Some say autism is linked to disruption in this activity- dependent remodeling d. Memory i. Anatomical/physiological event occurring at synapses. ii. dependent on neural plasticity and activity. iii. Two types of memory. 1. Short-term memory (STR): Info is stored for short time, released if irrelevant (not used) 2. Long-term memory (LTR): Activated when info has to be retained. When needed, it is retrieved from short-term memory. iv. Memory vs. Learning 1. Memory: storing info 2. Learning: Use of knowledge/experience from memory to avoid negative outcome. v. Goals of General Biology workshop 1. Improve ability to form memories 2. Use memories to learn + Problem-solve 3. Develop Learning skills/techniques 4. Use memory model a. STM – Limited, temporary storage of info in brain b. LTM – Unlimited, permanent, but can be difficult to obtain and retrieve 5. Achieve encoding a. Transfer STM into LTM: Form a memory physiologically: completing long-term potentiation (LTP) e. Long-term Potentiation i. Lasting increase in strength of synaptic transmission (psychological changes) ii. Also activity dependent iii. Use of info is deemed important, which is how it gets retained. iv. When info is not in use, it is deemed unimportant, and is therefore discarded from the brain v. When info is discarded, no new synapses are made. S•imulus Storage S•nsory memory g Encodin A•A Working memory Storage g Encodin S•ort-Term Memory Retrieval Storage L•ng-Term Memory vi. LTP will help retrieve LTM vii. LTP 1. Facilitated by organization. 2. Meaningful associations aid in memory formation. Connecting a new fact with something you already know will help you remember that new fact better 3. Chunking: Learning sets of related info at a time. In the old days, people used “chunking” to memorize phone numbers; they first memorized the first three digits, then the next three digits, then the last four digits, all separately before putting it together. 4. Repeated practice improves memory 2. Organization of General Biology workshop a. Student-centered, more active and discussion-based b. Making organizers: Tools to facilitate intake and retrieval c. Evaluate your understanding by asking challenging questions i. Question levels 1. Lower level questions: recall one or a few facts 2. Upper level questions: require more integrated understanding of material, serve to extend understanding Stimulus memoryy Sterm- memory Long- memorym Lecture 2 1. Biology consists of 5 unifying concepts a. Organization b. Information: DNA provides information for genetic makeup of human being c. Energy and matter: energy is transferred d. Interactions: every living thing reacts on a broad scale e. Evolution: explains unity of all living things 2. Evolution a. Accounts for unity and diversity b. It is the reason why there is biodiversity i. There are 1.8 million discovered species ii. Thousands more are discovered each year iii. There is an estimated total of 10 million to over 100 million species today. (This number depends on what one classifies as a species) c. Emergent Properties i. Emergence: The whole is more than the sum of its parts ii. Emergent properties: Result from arrangement and interaction of parts within a system 1. This is a major theme of biology 2. Example: memory emerges from the physics, chemistry, and cell biology of a synapse. It is unlike any other memory. Nobody is born with a memory. We all start with nothing and build our own unique memory 3. Levels of Biological Organization: all interconnected a. Molecules b. Organelles c. Cells d. Tissues e. Organs and organ systems f. Organisms g. Populations h. Communities i. Ecosystems j. Biosphere 4. Reductionism a. It would not make sense to address all levels of biological organization at the same time b. Reductionism: reduction of complex systems to simpler components that are more manageable to study 5. Systems of biology a. Taking a feature and looking how it interacts on a broader scale b. Opposite of reductionism c. Example: Pancreas is a system that belongs to a person who is a part of a population of people d. Can be used to study life at all levels 6. The Process of Science a. Scientific method i. Method of inquiry 1. finding natural explanations for natural phenomena 2. Limited to what is observable 3. Scientific process is not linear Observation + Question Background See what's already been done in the field you are studying Hypothesis is a proposedPPredictions have to be testable explanation Experiments & Observations: test hypothesis and prediction Evaluate: Were your predictions correct? If not If so Correct Ask a predictio new ns and question b. Language of Science i. Hypothesis: Testable explanation for observations based on available data; an educated guess ii. Theory: Broad explanation with significant support, leads to new hypotheses and accurate predictions iii. Law: Statement of what always occurs under certain circumstances 1. Observable, not explanatory (“what”, not “why”) 2. Provide observations and background info to develop hypotheses c. Summary of scientific method: Process for developing and testing hypotheses 7. Basic Elements of Chemistry a. Why this matters: We will talk about biological molecules b. Elements in human body: Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, and Carbon (HONC) make up 96% of body c. Electrons (e ) i. Subatomic particles ii. Exist surrounding atomic nucleus in cloud iii. -1 Charge iv. Move rapidly around atomic nucleus d. Potential energy i. Energy (E) that a material possesses due to its location or structure ii. Once potential energy is used, work has to be done to restore it iii. Example: A ball that is being held ten feet up in the air has potential energy. When you let go of it, it does not remain floating in the air. The potential energy has to be used. As the ball falls, it is converted into work until no more energy is left and it hits ground level. e. Electrons and energy i. Electrons are located in distinct shells ii. These have potential energy due to their distance from the nucleus; if they are far enough, they have the ability to leave the atom iii. Electrons can: 1. Absorb energy to move to higher shell 2. Release energy to fall to lower shell iv. Valence electrons occupy valence shell: Outermost shell v. Valence electrons: Occupy valence shell vi. Electron orbitals: 3D space where electrons are found 90% of time vii. Electrons distributed among specific orbital of shell viii. Electron’s energy is based on location on atom. ix. Electrons are the only subatomic particle directly involved with reactions, which is why they’re so important in biology f. Formation of molecule i. Molecule: Compound in which 2 or more elements have fixed ratio of each ii. Chemical Formula: Determines what type of atom and how many of each there are in a molecule iii. Molecular mass: Total mass of a molecule 1. Measured in units called daltons, or, grams per mole 2. H 2: Atomic mass of Hydrogen is around 1 grams per mole. Atomic mass of oxygen is around 16 grams per mole. In H 2, there are 2 moles of hydrogen, and 1 mole of oxygen. 1g 16g H∗2mol H+ ∗1molO=18g/mol mol mol iv. Chemical Equation 1. Reactants yield products 2. Reactants: substances that participate in reaction 3. Products: Substances formed by reaction v. Chemical bonds 1. Result of how atoms share electrons 2. Atoms “want” to have a full valence shell. They will share, donate, or accept electrons to achieve this 3. Energy is stored in chemical bonds vi. Electronegativity 1. Measure of atom’s affinity for electrons in chemical bonds 2. Atoms in a molecule attract electrons to varying degrees 3. The type of bond that is formed between atoms depends on difference of electronegativity vii. Covalent bond: 1. Sharing electrons between atoms 2. Results in full valence shell for each 3. Strongest type of bond (under biological conditions) 4. Each atom can form a characteristic number of bonds, they don’t just bond with anyone 5. How to (typically) find out how many covalent bonds an atom can form a. 8 minus the number of valence shell electrons = no. of bonds that can be formed with other atoms b. Exceptions: Hydrogen’s and Helium’s valence shells can only carry up to two electrons. Hydrogen has one electron in valence shell (can share one electron with another atom), helium has two (max). 6. Nonpolar covalent bonds: atoms have same or similar electronegativity a. Electrons shared equally b. Having symmetrical shape prevents polarity 7. Polar covalent bond: unequal electronegativity a. Unequal electron sharing b. Causes partial positive or negative charges. c. Lowercase delta, δ symbolizes partial charge viii. Ionic Bonds: highly unequal electronegativity 1. Electrons lost or gained turn atom into ion 2. Ion: charged atom 3. Ionic compounds consist of atoms that, when combined, make a neutral charge. Since ions have a charge, they need to be balanced out by their opposite charge 4. Anion: partially negative “side” of ionic bond. 5. Cation: partially positive “side” of ionic bond 6. Anions cancel out charge of cations 7. Like charges repel, opposites attract ix. Salts: compounds formed by ionic bonds. Found in nature as crystals 1. Dissolve in water 2. Ionic bonds weak in water 3. Ions interact with partial charges on H 2 molecules x. Hydrogen bonds: When hydrogen bonds with either fluorine, oxygen, or nitrogen (FON) 1. Involve partial charges δ or δ + 2. Weak individually 3. Strong in large numbers 4. Short-Lived xi. Van der Waals interactions: Short-lived weak interactions between non-polar molecules or regions 1. Still have regions of transient, weak + and – charges 2. Important in large numbers xii. Bond strengths in order from strongest to weakest 1. Covalent 2. Ionic 3. H bonds 4. Van der Waal 8. Emergent properties of water a. Water is a polar molecule b. Forms Hydrogen bonds c. Cohesion (stick to self) causes surface tension d. Adhesion (stick to other substances) e. Ability to moderate temperature f. Expands upon freezing g. Hydrophilic substances are polar, water will dissolve them. Ex: sodium chloride h. Hydrophobic substances are nonpolar, water cannot dissolve them. Ex: oil.
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