Cognitive Neuroscience Day 1/2 Notes
Cognitive Neuroscience Day 1/2 Notes 4140
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Selin Odman on Tuesday August 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 4140 at University of Georgia taught by Dr. Haas in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Cognitive Neuroscience in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 08/16/16
PSYC 4140 – Cognitive Neuroscience 8/16/16 fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging) Good: good for descriptive, but not predictive measures – we cannot assume causation using fMRI Bad: People try to use it to assume that one region of the brain is connect to one function in your brain What we’re looking for in fMRI Levels of oxygen in the brain: neurons use a lot of oxygen, so determining where a lot of oxygen was just used, can let us predict which neurons were active -fMRI DOES NOT actually show us neuron activity because it does not measure action potentials -this can lead to a large delay; up to 6 seconds after the neurons have actually fired Example: We are interested in which part of the brain is in charge of understanding emotions Experiment idea: show emotional faces and ask people to determine which emotion they’re showing; then show a blank screen and collect data again with fMRI Conclusion: The part of the brain that lights up is in charge of processing emotions (This is a flawed experiment) -Forward inference: induce a state of emotion/situation and then use fMRI to measure brain activity Example: Making moral decisions involved the insula brain of the brain which causes people to feel emotional physiological distress (Sweaty palms, fast heartbeat) Reverse inference: Using prior research, we know that the insula is involved in emotions; so if the insula part of the brain is active, we can assume the task requires emotions -Insula is active when moral decisions are being made morality involves emotions How We Know What We Know Connectional Methods -Functional of a neuron depend on its input and output *There is really nothing a cell/neuron can do on its own – it must work with other parts of the body/brain -Tracing these connections can teach us what the cell does -It’s possible to label cells that provide input to the neuron as well as the cells that the neuron sends messages to. -Diffusion tensor imagine (DTI) provides a way to map connection in a non- destructive way of a living brain by measuring amount and direction of diffusion of water molecules *if water molecule is moving in linear path, it is probably part of the axon and makes up white matter 1 PSYC 4140 – Cognitive Neuroscience *if water molecule moves in circulate path, it is probably part of the soma and make up grey matter Correlational Methods Invasive Methods -Microelectrodes can be implanted in the brain to record electrical activity of individual neurons of groups of neurons *This is a great way for researchers to measure action potential in the brain; it’s usually done if a patient is undergoing brain surgery and consents to research -Microdialysis samples the chemical makeup and concentration of brain fluid -Voltammetry measures the levels of neurotransmitters in a tissue by monitoring voltage changes in the probe Less Invasive Methods -Electroencephalography (EEG) does not give us a delay and we can better know when something is happening in the brain, but it’s harder to determine where in the brain something is happening *A cap is worn by the patient with electrodes all over it, measuring active potentials -Magnetoencephalography (MEG) monitors very small changes in the mag field around the head due to electrical changes in the brain *A magnet-type device is used to measure the field Indirect Methods -Positron emission tomography (PET) studies involve injecting small quantities of radioactive molecules into the body and monitoring how they are distributed in the brain -Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allows researchers to visualize structure of the brain in detail without radiation *fMRI -maps blood flow and oxygenation but has a delay due to both imaging methods and output from the neuron, but it’s accurate in telling us which part of the brain is activated *Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) identifies connections between different regions *Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) maps the shape and thickness of brain regions Lesion Methods Lesions are areas of the brain that are damaged by disease or injury -Traumatic brain injuries, stroke or tumors are through to results in lesions which affect behavior -In the 1860s, neurologist Paul Broca studies patients who had difficulties producing speech. Stimulation Methods A Toolbox of Complementary Methods 2 PSYC 4140 – Cognitive Neuroscience Know the parts of a neuron*** Soma, Dendrites, Axon, Myelin, Axon Terminal, Terminal Ruttun, and direction of neuron, white matter (has fatty tissue like axon)/grey matter (no fatty tissue like soma) 3
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