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Biol 1201, Week 1 Notes

by: Lauren Bagneris

Biol 1201, Week 1 Notes BIOL 1201

Marketplace > Louisiana State University > Biology > BIOL 1201 > Biol 1201 Week 1 Notes
Lauren Bagneris

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The notes are from the first two lectures in the first week of Biology 1202 and cover some of the information on the first exam.
Intro Biology for Science Majors
E Wischusen
Class Notes
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lauren Bagneris on Tuesday August 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1201 at Louisiana State University taught by E Wischusen in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Intro Biology for Science Majors in Biology at Louisiana State University.

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Date Created: 08/16/16
Sunday, August 7, 2016 Lecture 1 Biology - What is Science? • Science is a body of knowledge • An approach to understanding nature • Science- the use of evidence to construct testable explanations and predictions of natural phenomena and the knowledge generated through this process - What Do Scientists Do? • Make observations • Attempt to discern patterns • Assume that the future is like the past; in example, make predictions - Scientific Method • Make Observations • Generalization or Model • Hypothesis • Test • Make Observations (either publish findings or revise) - Theory vs Hypothesis • Hypothesis are usually narrow in scope and are normally the first explanation • Theories have broad explanatory power and is the best understanding of how things work • Hypothesis: a prediction for an experiment or a set of observations • Theory: Broad, general explanation for phenomena in nature • Example: evolution • Law: statement based on repeated observations that describes some aspect of natural phenomena, but doesn’t explain the phenomena 1 Sunday, August 7, 2016 - What is Biology? • Biology: the scientific study of life - What is life? • There are six characteristics of living systems: 1. Organization 2. Energy Use 3. Development 4. Reproduction 5. Evolve 6. Response to Environment - Scale of Nature • What scales are biologists interested in? • Atomic: 10^-8 meters • Community/ecosystems: 10^6 meters - Approaches to Biology • Reductionist approach: biologists use a single, isolated variable • Holistic approach: biologists study multiple variables at once to view the interactions of species among other species Atom Atom: the smallest unit of matter separable by normal chemical means • • Smallest unit of matter that retains all of the properties of that element • Atoms are important biologically important because organisms are composed of 11 basic elements • Value for an average human: $118.63 2 Sunday, August 7, 2016 Subatomic Particles Particle Mass Charge Proton 1 dalton +1 Neutron 1 dalton 0 Electron about 0 daltons -1 • Protons and neutrons are located in the nucleus of a cell, whereas electrons are located around the nucleus in orbitals (electron cloud) Atomic Number and Atomic Mass Atomic Number: the number of protons in an atom • • Atomic Mass: the number of protons and neutrons in an atom (approximately) Element Protons Neutrons Electrons Atomic # Atomic Mass Hydrogen 1 0 1 1 1 Helium 2 2 2 2 4 Carbon 6 6 6 6 12 Carbon-14 6 8 6 6 14 Nitrogen 7 7 7 7 14 Calcium- 2+ 20 20 18 20 40 Valence • Valence: the number of electrons that need to be gained or lost to fill outer shell of electrons • Also predicts how many chemical bonds and types of bonds that atoms will form Chemical Bonds • Form when atoms gain, lose, or share electrons • Result of electrical attractions between atoms Ionic Bonds Form when atoms completely gain and lose electrons • • Form strongest bonds when dry 3 Sunday, August 7, 2016 Covalent Bonds • Form when atoms share electrons • If shared equally, the non-polar covalent • If shared unequally, polar covalent • Forms strongest bonds in water (H2O) - What determines the number and types of chemical bonds? • Number is determined by valence • Type of chemical bond is determined by electronegativity • Electronegativity: the measure of the tendency for an atom to attract bonding pairs of electrons • Measures attraction an atom has for electrons Hydrogen Bonds • Weak attraction between atoms on different molecules or different parts of a large molecule • Occurs between molecules that have polar covalent to ionic bonds 4 Sunday, August 7, 2016 • Always involve Hydrogen • Example: • H2O= polar covalent • When water bonds with other water, hydrogen bonds form • H2O + NH3= polar covalent 5 Monday, August 8, 2016 Lecture 2 Biology - Molecules and Compounds • Compound: a substance consisting of two or more different atoms, in specific proportions bonded together in a specific pattern • Molecule: the smallest unit of a compound that retains all of the properties of that compound - Molecular Formulas • Example: • Water= H2O • Carbon Dioxide= CO2 • Glucose= C6H12O6 • Isomers: Molecules with the same molecular formula, but a different arrangement of atoms • Structural isomers • Cis-trans isomers • Enantiomers - Molecular Weight • Molecular Weight: the sum of the atomic masses for all of the atoms in a molecule • Example: • H2O= (1 x 2) + 16= 18 daltons • CO2= 12 + (16 x 2)= 44 daltons • C12H22O11= (12 x 12)+ (1 x 22)+ (16 x 11)= 342 daltons • C254H377N65O75S6= 3,048+377+910+ 1,200+ 192= 5,727 daltons • Gram Molecular Weight: the mass of a substance equal to its molecular weight in grams • Contains a constant number of molecules • Avogadro’s Number of molecules: 6.023 x 10^23 Moles and Molar Concentrations 1 Monday, August 8, 2016 • 1 Mole= the mass of a substance equal to its gram molecular weight 1 molar solution= a solution containing 1 mole of a substance per 1 liter of solution • • How much NaCl would you need to make a 1.0 molar solution in one liter of water? • 58.5 grams • Na= 23; Cl= 35.5—> NaCl= 58.5 grams • (58.5 g/mol) (1 mol/ 1 liter)= 58.5 g/liter • How much NaOH would you need to have 3.0 Moles? 120 grams • • Na= 23; O=16; H=1—> 40 grams • (40 g/mole) (3 moles/liter)= 120 grams/liter • Can you have a 1 molar solution of insulin? • No, the size of the molecule will not dissolve in that volume because 5 kg of insulin cannot dissolve in one liter • What is the average concentration of insulin in human blood? • 57-79 pmol/L—> .000000000057 mol/L Properties of Water • Cohesive and Adhesive • Cohesion: Water is attracted to water • Adhesion: Water is attracted to other substances • High Heat of Vaporization: water takes a lot of energy to transform from the liquid state to the gaseous state • High Specific Heat: takes a lot of energy to raise and lower temperature of water • Less Dense as a Solid than a Liquid Example: ice floats when it is in liquid • • Good Solvent for Polar Molecules • Water is known as a universal solvent and is a solvent for polar and ionic molecules Dissociation • Many molecules come apart (dissociate) when placed in water • These molecules break into their constituent ions NaCl—> Na+ and Cl- • 2 Monday, August 8, 2016 Acids, Bases, and Salts Acids produce H+ ions in aqueous solutions • • Example: HCl—> H+ and Cl- • Bases produce hydroxide ions in aqueous solutions • Example: NaOH—> Na+ and OH- • Salts produce neither • NaCl—> Na+ and Cl- pH • pH: a measure of the hydrogen ion concentration • pH= -log [H+] • Concentration in moles/liter • Relationship with [OH-]—> the sum of the pH and pOH= 14 Practice Problems Beginning with a solution of pH 8, you increase the [H+] by a factor of 1,000; what is • the new pH of the solution? Answer: pH of 5 • • Adding more hydrogen ions, means to going to the left or up on the pH scale • Each factor is by ten due to logarithmic equation; thus, 10 x 10 x 10 means increasing a pH of 8 to a pH of 5 • Beginning with a solution of pOH 5, you increase the [OH-] by a factor of 1,000; what is the new pH of the solution? 3 Monday, August 8, 2016 • Answer: pH of 12 Increasing hydroxide ion by 1,000 means to the right 3 spaces (from pOH of 5 to • pOH of 2) or (pH of 9 to pH of 12) When an acid is dissolved in water, what happens? • • Answer: The [H+] increases and the pH decreases because the acidity in the water increases. Buffers • Buffers: substances that maintain a constant pH What determines Solubility? • Like dissolves like • Like in terms of polarity Polar solutes dissolve in polar solvents • • Non-polar solutes dissolve in non-polar solvents 4


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