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Class Notes Week 1

by: Cara Macdonald

Class Notes Week 1 EBIO 2100

Cara Macdonald
GPA 3.86
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About this Document

These are lecture notes from the first two classes this week. Textbook notes will be uploaded separately.
Marine Biology
Timothy Mclean
Class Notes
Marine, Geology




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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cara Macdonald on Tuesday August 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to EBIO 2100 at Tulane University taught by Timothy Mclean in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Marine Biology in Environmental Biology at Tulane University.

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Date Created: 08/16/16
8/30/16 Dr. Tim McLean Introduction ● What is marine biology?  ○ Life that exists in a marine environment ○ Incorporates: ■  Geology ■ chemistry of the water itself ■ Physics: the movement of water, waves, etc  ■ Meteorology: how does the weather affect what happens under the surface ■ Zoology ■ Botany  ■ ALL of these aspects interact to make marine biology  ● Why is marine biology important to study? ○ We don’t know much about the ocean, even though it covers 70% of our earth ○ New marine species are constantly being found  ○ To learn about life in the largest segment of the Earth’s biosphere  ■ Ocean is a huge volume of space on the planet ■ How does life exist here?  ■ How is this life different from us? From other aquatic environments?  ■ If life originated in the ocean, how did we evolve to live on land? What adaptations does this life  require? ■ Learn basic aspects of biology by studying marine organisms ● All organisms start out as a single cell ○ Ex. Sea urchin embryology follows the same path of growth as humans  ● Can see how mutating different genes affects development ○ Understand which genes control which features ○ Human counterparts to these genes ○ Ex. studying giant axons in squids allowed us to learn about neurons ○ Discovery of cyclins: different proteins that are associated with growth transitions applicable to  ALL organisms  ■ Learn about early life on Earth ● Can work backwards and recreate what life may have looked like ○ Marine organisms can feed us  ■ We learn how to grow organisms outside their natural environment  ○ Have medicinal benefits ■ Isolate and test chemicals from different organisms ○ Can kill us ■ Harmful toxins (e.g. algal blooms) make shellfish dangerous to eat ■ Water may not be potable  ○ Affect the world around us ■ May be a nuisance e.g. barnacle growth  ■ Important positive effects  ● Production of gases affects cloud formation  ● Ocean is an oxygen factory  ○ Trees and plants on ground produce half the oxygen  ○ Life in the ocean produces the other half  ○ Oceans and human health are interconnected  ■ Humans enjoy beaches  ■ Environment supports recreation and tourism  ○ Much of it is still to be explored  ● Marine Biology vs. Oceanography:  ○ Both are broad in scope with many supdisciplines ○ Oceanography:  ■ Geological  ■ Physical  ■ Chemical  ■ Biological  ● History of Marine Biology (formal study) ○ Dates back to Aristotle (the father of marine biology) ○ Disagreed with Plato’s theory of intuitive thinking for discovery  ■ Gave rise to scientific method: Observing, testing hypotheses ○ Described over 500 marine species  ○ First recognition that cetaceans were mammals ○ Many voyages of discovery: ■ 3 voyages of James Cook in mid­late 1700s  ■ Charged with mapping, claiming land for england  ■ Darwin in the Beagle 1831­36 ■ Wilkes Expedition, 1838­1842 ■ Challenger Expedition, 1872­1876 ● First time boats sent out for sole purpose of oceanographic research  ● Discovered over 5,000 species ● Discovered Mariana Trench (deepest part of the ocean) ■ Global Ocean Sampling Expeditions, 2003­2010 ● Guy who first sequenced the human genome  ● Outfitted a sailboat to go around the world sampling water  ● Isolated DNA from those samples and sequenced  ○ Establishment of dedicated marine stations and labs ■ We now have hundreds of these nationally and internationally  ○ Research vessels invented  ■ Bathysphere: first dive on August 15th 1885 ■ Kept making new discoveries and designs ● We now have much more sophisticated research vessels  ● Designed to go out for days, weeks or months  ● Can tag and track animal movements, etc. 


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