Chem 100 Chapter 1 Notes
Chem 100 Chapter 1 Notes 7594
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Beth Weirich on Tuesday August 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 7594 at Truman State University taught by R Festa in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 93 views. For similar materials see Chem for Contemp Living w Lab in Chemistry at Truman State University.
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Date Created: 08/16/16
CHAPTER 1 NOTES 1.1 science- primary mean to obtain knowledge chemical- pure sample of a substance Chemistry- study of how one substance transforms into something else (deals with the behavior of matter) Technology- application of knowledge for practical purposes Alchemy- primitive form of chemistry that flourished in Europe from 500-1500 C.E., alchemists interested in a “philosopher’s stone” (turning cheaper material into gold and an elixir bringing eternal life) green/ sustainable chemistry- important because they create less pollution, keeping our world away from future destruction and preserving life on earth 1.2 Hypothesis- tentative explanations of observed data (educated guess) 5 characteristics of science: Testable Reproducible Explanatory Predictive Always tentative Scientific law- scientific data summarized in brief form Theory- best current explanation for a phenomenon (always tentative) Scientific model- uses tangible items/pictures to represent invisible processes *All of the above are part of the scientific process, when one becomes invalidated, the other must change to fit new information. As science evolves, laws, theories, and models evolve as well. 1.3 risk- hazard that leads to loss or injury (ex. Environmental deterioration, economic loss) Benefit- anything that promotes well-being or has a positive effect (ex. Improvements economically, socially, or psychologically) DQ (desirability quotient) = benefits risks 1.4 Basic research= search for knowledge for its own sake Applied research= work oriented toward a solution involving industry/environment 1.5 Mass- measure of the quantity of matter that an object contains Weight- measures a force (ex. On earth the attraction between our planet and the mass in question) Physical property of a substance= characteristic/ behavior observed without generating new matter (ex. color) Chemical property= describes how a substance reacts with other types of matter Physical change= physical altercation of matter that doesn’t involve changing chemical makeup (reversible) Chemical change= change in chemical makeup 1.6 Solid- object maintains its shape and volume regardless of its location Liquid - occupies a definite volume but assumes the shape of the portion of a container that it occupies Gas- maintains neither shape nor volume, expands to fill completely whatever container it occupies Mixture- 2 or more substances mixing, but not changing chemically (can be done) *homogeneous: same composition and appearance (ex. salt in water) *heterogeneous: appearance is not the same (sand in water) Substance= element or compound Element- can’t be broken down into simpler substance (ex. every substance on the periodic table is considered an element) Compound-made of 2 or more elements chemically combined 1.7 SI units (International System of Units)- metric measurement system THE SEVEN SI BASE UNITS Length… meter^2… m Mass… kilogram… kg (2.2 lbs) Time… second… s Temperature… Kelvin… K Amount of substance… mole… mol Electric current… ampere (amp) … A Luminous intensity… candela… cd Energy… Joule… J Exponential notation (1.6 x 10^-19) Scientific notation: # b/t 1 & 10 Numerical prefixes- 1,000,000………………………….mega- 1,000……………………..kilo- 100 …………….hecto- 10…………… deka- .1………deci- .01... centi- .001….milli- .000001 micro- .000000001 nano- Common conversions: 2.21 lb = 1 kilogram 1kg = 1,000 g = 10^3 g Meter- 1 km = 1,000m 1 cm = .01 m 1 mm = .001 m Cubic decimeter = 1 Liter 1 L = 1 dm^3 = 1,000 cm ^3 Unit conversion- problem solving method 1.83 kg x 1,000g = 1,830 g 1 kg 1.8 density = mass m= (d)(v) v= m/d volume 1.9 heat= energy on the move, energy that flows from a warmer object Temperature= measure of how hot or cold an object is Kelvin scale= absolute scale (zero point is the coldest temp possible- known as absolute zero) K= Celsius temp + 273.15 Joule (J) and calorie (cal) are units of energy. 1 cal = 4.184 J 1,000 cal= 1kcal 1.10 FLaReS= principles to test a claim Falsifiability- Can any conceivable evidence show the claim to be false? Logic- argument offered as evidence in support of a claim must be sound. Replicability- if claim derives from experimental data, experiment must be repeated to verify results Sufficiency- 3 rules to establish truth (1) evidence for any claim rests on claimant, (2) extraordinary claims need extraordinary evidence (3) evidence based on an authority figure or on testimony is never adequate.
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