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Date Created: 08/16/16
CLAS 329 01/19/2016 ▯ How did we get from ancient Greek culture to vampires? ▯ Part of Dracula film was played… ▯ ▯ Begin with the Classical “Quarry” Not a real quarry Source of intellectual and artistic inspiration Greece and Rome The Golden Age of Athens ca. 440 B.C. The Roman Empire ca. 31 B.C.-A.D. 300 ▯ Athens, Leading City of Attica Rise of City-State Ruling families at 1 st Gradually focus on local rule based on demes or land divisions around Athens Ca. 508 B.C. become key to government Cleisthenes (500 B.C.) o Creator of Athenian Democracy ▯ Pericles, Leader of Athens 461-429 B.C. Democracy—voting, electing, councils Extraordinary advances in the arts 1 Advance towards idealized realism Develop the concept of “theater” Has a high city or Acropolis with sacred building o Where all the important buildings are Athena-Goddess of Wisdom (Athens) The New York Kouros ca. 600 B.C. Kouros just means “boy” Influenced by Egyptian statues and Near Eastern style hair Stiff and stylized-subtractive sculpture ▯ Doryphoros of Polykleitos, also spelled Polyclitus (of Argos) Contrapposto Weight shift Striding stance Liberation from block Detailed musculature More realistic appearance No more hair braids Engineering Building on Campus Doric building and ionic column Parthanon (Most famous building in Athens) ▯ The Roman Empire spreads 2 ▯ Ancient Rome: The Fourm ▯ What cause the downfall of the Roman Empire? Possibly Malaria o Mosquitos from water o Plasmodium falciparium Baby cemeteries were made; many were buried in vases caused a lot of premature babies and neonates that are found in the jars. ▯ Middle Ages of Pilgrimage Routes 5 to 4 Centuries CE routes Crusade Routes o Rise of Christianity o Not only Muslims but other Christians o Created “Romanasic” style God to pay attention to; designed to scare people Massive Walls Round arches Cross shape Apse at end (trials would take place, Jesus or God would be placed in apse) Absence of light, windows, to be frightening Transept (where cross intersects) ▯ Saint Faith of Agen (Saint Foy) 12 yrs. old, refused to sacrifice to Roman Gods she was burned on a bronze bed then beheaded 3 Stole her body o The great transfer She was a martyr ▯ The Gothic Period 1200-1400 A.D. Rise of HUMANISM Growth of cities and Universities The Franciscans—St. Francis of Assisi 1181-1226 A.D. Rise of Gothic architecture ▯ Giovanni Francesco Bernardini Son of rich cloth dealer Soldier held prison for a year Charity, poverty, love of the natural world & animals ▯ Notre Dame Cathedral, Paris 1163-1250 (gothic style) Welcome, welcome to the Catholic church More light in with stain glass windows (helps the illiterate), need to have flying butrisses, pointed arches Ripple, full of cluster piers Tracery Segmented arches, ribbed vaults Dematerialized spaces ▯ Sculpture starts to change international classical ▯ Dracula and Frankenstein the universal picture roamanesic, gothic to show scary, gloomy look 4 ▯ REVIEW OF LAST LEC ▯ Romanesque-Roman like architecture Gloomy, dark Fortress, thick walls, windows are top (along the roof) Arch weakens wall ▯ Gothic Pointed arches Bright Stained glass windows Flying buchesses Pointed arch th th ▯ The Renaissance 14 -16 Century Francesco Petrarca (1304-1374), known as Petrarch, was an Italian scholar, poet, and one of the earliest Renaissance Humanists. Petrarch is called “the father of humanism” Resurrector of knowledge of Greece and Rome Raphael, Madonna of the Goldfinch, with Infant Jesus and John the Baptist 1507 o Painting to be depth; painting toward a vanishing point o Raphael was the keeper for Ancient Rome, used to keep everything to themselves o Celebrating equity o Order and reason o Triangle groups 1 o Geometric proportion Leonardo da Vinci o 1452-1519 o Renaissance Man: artist, o Mona Lisa (1503-1505) Baroque Period in Italy 1600-1715 Michelangelo Caravaggio o Catholic church renewed energy o He is their principal and most influential artist o Constantly fighting o Mutually unbalanced o Involved with prostitutes & pimps ▯ Conversion of St. Paul by Caravaggio 1601-Baroque Art Tenebrism- creates light and change o Chiaroscuro o Forced perspective o Dynamism o Sharp highlights and contrast Counter-reformation art Space, light, drama are key ▯ Artemisia Gentileschi- Judith Slaying Holofernes 1620 2 Holofernes is Assyrian general of 6 cen BCE Caravaggisti Daughter of Orazio Problems with Agostino Tassi o Raped her o She had to go through torture and trial o Shows violence against males mostly Remarkable, unique ▯ Rembrandt, Self Portrait 1661, before removal of over-painting Return of the Prodigal Son 1665- Dutch Baroque Psychology of life Influence on Theatre Influence on Cinema Chiaroscuro models, emotion ▯ Francesco Borromini (1599-1667) ▯ San Carlo, Rome Buildings that push out or pull in ▯ Germain Buffrand, Hotel de Soubise, France 1740 Charles-Joesph Natoire Paintings Jean Silve, guilded, gold, mythologoical cratures, birds, cupid, delicate colors Rococo painting ▯ Jean-Honore Fragonard Rorcoco (1732-1806) The Swing 1766 o light and delicate o pale colors o cluttered look o love themes, playful o Contrast Borque o Statue of Harpocrates-Egypt o Hieroglyfic for childhood 3 ▯ Louis XV of France 1710-1774 ▯ ▯ Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Philosopher, 1712-1778 The age of romanticism Reaction to artifice of Rococo Search for the Natural expression of emotion Extol the natural man, countryman ▯ Horace Walpole (1717-1797) Gothic Revival Creation of Strawberry Hill near London 1 Rich son of Robert, Prime Minister Member of the Parliament A dandy o Writing & architecture Eclectic design A little bit of everything, fused different architecture o Romanesque-gothic style- Fusion of older styles o Flemish crenellations o Gothic-pointed arches, mullions, stained glass o Romanesque- blod flat spaces and towers o Secret passages o Dark stairs o Exotic-echoes of King Arthur o Romance of the Ruin Middle ages (Romanesque) using old ruin building to create a mystery, love Walpole wrote the first gothic novel 1764 o Supernatural occurances o Fiancés in distress o Castle as tyrant o Romance if the Ruin o Clanking armor- eerie sounds 2 o Releases this as a REAL medieval work Mary Shelley writes Frakenstein in 1818 o Her mother Mary Wollstonecraft Father installs for her to be able to think Dracula clip o Verdom- something will happen on the dark side of the stairs Bram (Abraham) Stoker-wrote Dracula o Stages in theatre would have a vampire trap o Stage manager for Henry Irving o Has beautiful but difficult wife o Create Dracula in 1931 (Bela Lugosi) The Age of Romanticism 1750-1900 o Revival of earlier styles o Taste for the exotic and ancient—love of the middle ages Romanesque and gothic mixed up together and love of ancient Greece and Rome o Gothic Revival o Neo-Classicism—The Classical Revival Robert Adam (1728-1792) o Scottish father & son in Edinboro o Adamesque style Osterley Park, London Romanesque/classical style 3 Robert Adam, Osterley Park, West London (1761-1780) So called Etruscan Room Ancient roman style wall decoration Incense burners Classical figures Rinceau and acanthus Precise and clean look Pompeii (AD 79) o Covered in ash, most died o Mount vesuvious o Easy to dig up o 18 century to dig up pompeii Robert adam Sir William Hamilton Queen Maria Amelia Johann Wincklemann 1763 ▯ Mt. Vesuvious and the Forum of Pompeii, Italy Skeleltons finding skeletons o Force was strong enough to make the blood in your body boil ▯ Emma Hamiliton 1765-1815 portraits by Romney, Vigee-Librun ▯ The Royal Pavilion in Brighton-1815-1818 John Nash, Hindoo Gothic 4 Designs for prince regent (King George IV)-Islamic minarets, dome, cast iron frame Style termed Hindoo Gothic interiors by Fredric Grace & Robert o Designed ranged from Islamic, Chinese, Japanese mix of everything. ▯ Napoleon III 1808-1873 Nephew of napoleon Holdings in African and Asia, railroads Fashion, child labor! Omphalos of European Civilzation Hausman Boulevards in movie Hugo ▯ Eugenie 1826-1920 Motherhood and elegance Model for high fashion ▯ Charles Garnier 1825-1898 Oprah to hear music Mozart and everyone Builds his oprah o Completion for designs o Likes Michelanglo, Baroqur o Style is Neo-baroque Romantic Charles Garnier and the Paris Opera 1861-1874 Demolished prostitute house (first three floors, fourth floor is a hotel) Jean Auguste Mixed up culture fused all of it together ▯ William Bougereau 1825-1905 Great artist of the Nouveau Riche o Sexy neo-clasicisim Sugary wee tot ultra sexy 5 Photograhi c ▯ Romanticism 1750-1900 Dracula o Reaction to Rococo-seek natural man o Gothic Revival of Horace Walpole-Castle Chivalry- Medieval code, protect damsels in distress, noble, serious, religious code Pre-Raphaelites: 1850s-1890s-Escape to higher reality, secret brotherhoods Facinsaition with medieval rituals and magic—King Arthur, Merlin the Magician Lve of nature and frequently paint outdoors, sciences with water, vegetation Women as mystical and strange—the female fatale, elegant clothing, crushed velvet Women with red hair, can be frightening, dangerous Horror Vacui –fear of leaving an empty space Dante Gabriel Rossetti 1828-1892 Resistance to modernism Hyper-sensitive 6 Helen of Troy 1863, Hamburg o Kidnapped from Sparta lead to destruction of Troy o Long flaming red hair, full red lips, silk, jewelry, glaze look, frightening, dangerous, psychedelic eyes, trance, elaborate jewlery Lead you to destruction but do not even realize it. Themes of tragedy and suffering Asrarte Syricaca o Firghtenign hands, red hair, beautiful dress ▯ Jane (Mrs. William) Morris 1860 Admired by artist John William Waterhouse, Hylas and the Nymphs 1896, Manchester Hylas assisted Hercules Argonaut voyage Sought water, Lured to death by nymphs Femme fatale Women in water William Holman Hunt, The Lady of Shalott 1900, Hartford, Conn. She sees Lancelot reflection Virgin and Child at far left Hercules and the Garden of the Hesperides far right Putti (images floating around) Horror Vacui 2 Bright Colors—much red ▯ Alfred Lord Tennyson 1809-1892 Poet Laureate of England Concern for effect of science on myth Obsession with death Hypersensitive dandy Mysticism Craftsman of metre and rhythm from studying the Classical Quarry of Latin writers such as Virgil The Lady of Shalott, 1888 ▯ Millais, The Bridesmaid 1851 and Loreena McKennitt Contemporary Canadian Celtic Romantic composer, singer, musicians, producer, Celtic conduit-revives ancestors British, French, Irish, Canadian, World Music Pre-Ralpaelite Influence-Sets Tennyson to music, begins as Medieval busker, Red hair Sir John Everett Millais, Ophelia 1852, Tate Gallery, London Ophelia loves Hamlet but he does not love her ▯ Femme fatale-hypnotic, hypnotisms, pulsing Initiation into secret ceremony—Loreena cult o Dark rituals, animism, natural magic o Ripple effect, think of the consequences of life before it happens *listen with your heart and ears; turn toward them ▯ Unicorn The Body Swans 1993 o Sisters are rivals for a young man-elderst pushes youngest into water. Dead sister becomes a swan found by a harpist, then sister turns into a singing harp o It plays in the hall of their father the king and tells of “false Anne” o Told using the background of the lady and the Unicorn Tapestry A Mon Seul Desir –Love! Swan-middle ages the sign of death ▯ The Mummer’s Sance 1997 How rock & roll mth Celtic/ Persian & the Arizona Inn o Sufism-8 cen A.D. Islamic religious system of Persia, Dervism, mystical order, whirl and spin—entrancing 3 o Newfoundland traditional to house o ▯ Light shines through hole in dark room ▯ Yields inverted image on wall ▯ Known about since 10 century A.D. th 17 Century-Johannes Kepler o develop portable one aids artists doing paintings o David Hockney-photographer o Charles Falco- UA optics professor ▯ Camera Lucida Add prism and attach to drawing table object reflects from mirror to your eye you see object on your paper in front of you you can “cheat” and draw object 4 Discover how to draw in depth Primitive slide projector-uses BURNING LIME to generate light Place silhouettes or cut outs or slides in front of light source and project it illustrated songs become popular ca. 1900 o Stepping into the lime light, lime light ▯ Change slides faster and faster Magic Latern Show Phantasmagoria Show o Movable panels o Add sounds o ▯ Peter Mark Roget 1779-1869 Renaissance man Persistence of vision Swiss doctor Creates a treasury of words known as THESAURUS Thaumatrope-wonder wheel put the two things on either side together ▯ Joesph Plateu Phenakistiscope 1828 ▯ Joesph Nicephore Niepce 1765-1833 Creator of photography Experiments with camera obsura 2 o Silver chloride on back of obsura change color when struck by light create and image o Heliography-takes 8 hours asphalt makes light and dark reverse asphalt/petroleum helps to fix image o Meets Lois Daguerre 1827 Gallery owner Uneducated hustler Claims he’s doing experiments too! o Treats silvered plate with mercury too ▯ Louis Daguerre (A Real Shit) Claims he’s the real inventor of photography Cheated Niepce Names Daguerrotype after himself ▯ William Henry Fox-Talbot Optician and chemist Soaks paper in salt & silver nitrate Shadowgraph=light, dark reverse Creates positive film image Daguerre steals from fox-talbot o 1860 posing did not take as long ▯ Etiennes-Jules Marey 1830-1904 Marey Study of Male Nudes ▯ Leland Stanford, Eadweard Muybridge 3 Southern & Central Pacific Railroad CEO- monopoly, Chinese imported to lay rail. Brings in farmers at low rent to build railroad towns, then increase rent 10 times 5 farmers murdered at protest, defend action with huge legal staff Leland Stanford is Republican lawyer, senatr, governor, California Bets on how horses actually run and if all 4 feet are raised up to 1870s Muybridge delays project-he’s jealous of his wife, arrested for shooting 1874 o 18778 acquitted and finished study ▯ Muybridge Camera ▯ Leland Stanford Junior 1868-1884 21 million dollars and 9000 acres to honor son dies of typhoid contracted on Grand Tour in Athens Dies in Florence Wife Jane cleans up memory of murders with philanthropy ▯ Montmarte, Paris Entertainment Thomas Edison Edison (another real shit) Poses as the inventor of movies Dickson actually developed the project ▯ George Eastman, Charles Pathe Celluloid flexible film stock developed nitrocellulose and camphor- flammable plastic perforations allow turning with crank 1889 Developed o Kinetoscope ▯ Palmer Cox 1840-1924 Brownie Camera o 1887 Brownies, 1 million cartoons sold with poetry, comic strip invented children loves this Canadian cartoonist’s work magic for children-take pictures of your family and develop quickly do it at home Eastman KODAK Brownie camera ▯ Auguste and Louis Lumiere 1 popular projector Antoine has factory near lyon at montplaisir, France Antoine buys a kinetoscope March 1885 4 o Cinematographe Lumiere o ▯ George Melies 1861-1937 1902 vonyage le lun father nouveu riche millionaire in fashion shoes o automan little robots, he would build robots brothers Henri, Gaston, George in military and then arranged, social marriages Draftsman and painter but loves girls in the Montmarte and the Opera area, Paris Banished to London—Prestidigitation (sleight of hand), Legerdemain (stage magic)—“white magician” Cartoonists as George smiles Jean Eugene Robert-Houdin 1888 Melies buys his theatre from Jean’s widow 3000 seats largest in Paris acrobats, smoke bombs, contortionists, sexy, ladies in hot pants, ships is mock storm with sets that rise and fall into the stage, flying women 5 ▯ Erik Weisz comes to visit Watch magic acts and someone who wants to have their head removed Hodinni America to be magician ▯ Melies’ Selenite Drawing Made film to look like scientific More was going on Cinema that was so personal o Star actor o Producer o Screen play writer o Cast director Stop motion cinematography o Art of the upper class (rococo designs) o Romantic period Geroge Melies Innovations o Double exposure o Multiple exposure o Stop motion o Fadeouts o Dissolves o Trapdoors, smoke bombs o Painted cardboard sets go up and down o Trip to the Moon 1902 Icon for cinema Influence of sc-fi novels of Jules Verne 1860s -1870s from the earth to the moon. Verne was the first to combine story & sci-fi romantic adventure Alphonse Mucha Busy kind of posters A lot of cresents and zodiac panel 2 Granola cookies ▯ Indian Country A legal term (18 USC 1151 et sec) Used to define land within the limits of any Indian people ▯ Recall the definition of tribal sovereignty: the ability to govern themselves, land, game, etc. ▯ Plenary power: congress power to make the decisions to regulate Indian country ▯ Review Allotment: The break up of large reservation and tribal communal land holdings into individual parcels of land for private ownership by tribal members o Land held in trust for 25 years General Allotment Act of 1887 not the first time the system allotment was used by the Federal Government ▯ What is at least one stated or unstated purpose of the Allotment Act Assimilation 3 Space control Taxes Federal government waned land for railroads ▯ Created “checkerboard pattern” within reservation boundaries Limited, but not completely destroyed ▯ Oklahoma: An experience of rebellion Dawes Act did not apply to many tribes in Indian Territory” The civilized tribes o Cherokees Treaty of Echota (1835) o Creeks Treaty of Indian Springs o Chickasaw o Choctaw o Seminole ▯ Dawes Commission Est. by Congress in 1893 tp “persuade” Five civilized tribes to allot Dawes rolls created o Like census 2 o Very controversial Story of twin brothers Enrollmemt of tribe members and the ensuing allotment was performed without tribal consent o Yet: The Five Civilized Tribes STILL use these rolls to determine membership Commission was ultimately unsuccessful at “persuading” ▯ Curtis Act of Allotment ▯ ▯ Osage Allotment: A Case Study wazhazhii December 31, 1881: Osage adopted a Constitiuion Chief-James Bigheart Referred to as the Osage National Council Consitition remained in effect till March 30, 1900 ▯ March 30 , 1900: Fed Gov. abolished Osage National Council claiming it was: Acrimonious (angry/bitter) disputes between the factions over elections Entire absence of harmony between the Osage tribal officers and the Indian agent in the administration of tribal affairs The selection of ignorant men as officeholders The profligate use of moneys received from permit taxes ▯ 1900-1906 2 different interim government “put” into place elections rigged ▯ ▯ Osages were already leasing land (in 1901: 727, 260,acres) 3 ▯ Federal government had over $8 million in trust (sale of Kansas for selling land and pasture leases) ▯ Osages had “…valuable houses and other buildings as well as orchards, planted groves, etc. ▯ Discovered in 1896 “black gold” ▯ $343 in annuity payments ▯ in 1924, an Osage head-right was $12,000 ($166,327.72 in 2015) could not do anything because they were wards of the government ▯ 1894: Osage Commission sent by Congress to discuss allotment black dog and James Big Heart (along with a contingent of “Full bloods”) lists of reasons against allotment: o The Osage were not ready for allotment o The Osage did not desire allotment o Osage could not agree on how the land would be divided in case allotment o Osages had not been paid for their lands in Kansas o There were individuals on the tribal roll were not Osage 447 43 were removed June 28, 1906 o Written by Osage for Osages Which Osages got to write it o The entire reservation allotted to tribal members or remained in trust for Osage tribes Ex. Osages villages: Pawhuska, Hominy, Grayhorse for the “blanket Indians” o Mineral rights reserved to be held communally 4 Underground reservation o Form of government (Business council) and membership criteria(Head rights) was mandated o Last tribe in Oklahoma/Indian territory to be allotted Osage members made 3 selections for their 160 acres totaling 480 acres o 1 homestead, 2 surplus (Osage member gets to decide which is which) Osage allotting commission created to “select” allotments o Made up of 1 Osage selected by Osage Council and 2 Osages selected by Commissioner of Indian Affairs All the salarism surveys, fees, etc. was paid for by the Osage money held in trust Secretary of the interior-could issue competency papers o Opened surplus lands to taxation Impacts Today 2004: PL 108-431 To reaffirm the inherent sovereign rights of the Osage Tribe to determine its membership and form of government” 2004-2006 Osage Constitutional Reform…Native Nation Building 2011: Osage Nation v. Irby –no reservation left 2016: recently purchased 43,000 acres within Osage County ▯ ▯ Delacroix, Othello 1816 Use color very boldly in paintings ▯ Ingres does not like color, Delacroix likes color started like a fight 5 ▯ Delcroix, Liberty Leading the People 1830 Fantastic colors, cotemporary o Influence of Baroque o Colorist big, bold splashes of color o Louis-Philippe Replaces him as limited monarchy o Idealize and yet relevant ▯ Ingres does odalisque with solid outlines, marble-like textures, classical influences. Clear ▯ Vs. Delacroix has color all around nudes and looks more fuzzy; color theorist ▯ Gustave Courbet 1819-1877 Man of the people Anti-church bureaucracy Heroism of the common man o Show me an angel and I’ll paint one but there are none so I’m not going to paint one Influence of Baroque browns Politicla activists 1840s o Tax the rich o Demands care for poor o Separate church and state o Commune-anti-napolean group o Louis-phillipe abdicates o Bad harvest 1848 2 o Head of Muesums Commune accused of corruption Courbet, The Interior of my Studio 1855, Musee d’Orsay, Paris Beaudelaire Too materialistic Too large Socialistic 30 figure social spectrum, working class at left: dagger, guitar, hunting dog A cat can see a king-16 century saying showing a cat may have better insight than a huma o Hates clergy, teachers, university ▯ Gustave Courbet, The Stone Breakers 1849, Dresden Realism Done using a lot of color ▯ Edouard Manet 1832-1883 Impressionism Reacts to photography-is art dead? Optical sensations of light and color Dejeuner Sur L’Herbe o Shocking Is not just “lunch” Two men and one naked one and people just looked 3 Naked woman in painting was top lady, model Perspective with two guys hanging out with a naked lady and giantess 2D and 3D at the same time, triangle groups o Triangle group ▯ Claude Monet 1840-1926 Not linear at all, so fuzzy Rouen Catherdral 1893 Vincent Van Gough, Self Portraits Totaling not appreciated at all o Theo owned an art gallery think it would be easy. o Emotional guy, in trouble all the time Vincent baby 1 died buried him in the front so could not keep him had Vincent and named the same thing o Falls in love with women that don’t like him Seriously mentally ill theo thought Religious missionary Not successful with London slums o Paranoid about people attacking him . o Mother inherited 20 paintings o She did not want them and burned them outside. o 4 ▯ Max Reinhardt, German Theater Impressario 1873-1943 Takes dramatic scripts and uses set design as emotional link to reflect the story and theme Uses new electric light invention ca. 1900 Uses Caravaggio’s and Rembrandt’s chiaroscuro lighting Uses expressionist distortion of Van Gogh and munch for set design Develops concept of stimmung or atmosphere with chiaroscuro lighting, smoke, shadows Psychic acoustics-light, dark, smoke, crowds expressionist-cubist acting, drain stimmung(atmosphere) for each scene ▯ Deutsches Theater with Kammerspiele on the left Ibsen’s Ghosts 1906 Kammerspiele o Edvard Munch makes storyboards for all movies The armchair says it all ▯ Reinhardt Moved to America and made good movies and innovations o Favorite was James Cadney o Mid Summer Nights Dream o Liked using crowds ▯ Fritz Lang used the same crowds in le tropolis ▯ ▯ Hans Poelzig 1869-1936 Grosses Schauspielhaus 1 Romantic Expressionist architect Loves theatres and carinvals The building is alive, like his hair! Leitmotif Capricio effects—lively like ▯ Grosses schauspielhaus 1919 Stalactites Amphitheater Paintings outside that was suppose to make one anxious ▯ Emil Nolde (Hansen) 1867-1956 9 generation farmer/craftsman Schleswig-Holstein Die Bruke- the Bridge Link between nature and emotion Religion, ecstatic fervor Paints with fingers, card strips Sings hymns, has visions Reduction to essentials Transform nature by infusing it with your own spirit ▯ Mont Sainte-Victoire 1885 Paul Cezanne ▯ 2 ▯ Pablo Picasso 1881-1973 vs. Henri Matisse Pablo is a little shit, he keeps pushing himself to be better Womanizing, rude, crude, big head Matisse experiments with color ▯ Picasso, Les Demoiselles d’Avignon 1906 Creates cubism-prismatic reordering of art o Mainly was les demoiselles But Picasso took credit for cubism o Architecture of color o Reordering of reality o Rethink- where the art originated –African George Braque vs. Picasso o Expressionist cubism Colors mixed with emotions Lyonel Feininger Fuse picasso’s cubism and van gogh’s expression Piss yellows Influence of munch Garish orange Dehumanized people, disorienting diagonal ▯ Karl Schmidt-Rottluff, 2 women 1912 African masks Cubism Wood cuts, dark ▯ The cabinet of Dr. Caligari 1919: Hermann Warm, Walter Reiman Der stum ▯ Rob Zombie ▯ 1931 White Zombie fascination for Mabel Normand, actress, suspected of killing Wm. Desmond Taylor 3 fascination for Madge Bellamy star of White Zombie ▯ Franco-Prussian War 1870-leads to unification of German 20 states local princes leads to loose grouping with emperor and King of Prussia ▯ The chancellor and the Kaiser Chancellor-Prince Otto Van Bismarck Builds up steel industry, railroads, trade surpasses England, squelches socialism ▯ Kaiser-Kaiser Wilhelm II Dismisses Bismarck in Control information-courts, media, Krupp family Ignites supernationalist movement Anti-Jew, Militaristic, and Imperialistic Munitiion makers fuel war, suppress agriculture 4 Great wealth for the elite 1% Use youth for military conquests It is the destiny of the country to be victors ▯ John Joseph Pershing, Ferdinand Foch Pershing 1860-1948 o West Point o Wounded Knee vs. the Sioux 1890 o Phillipines o Cuba o Commands AEF Images of World War I o War is hell o 1 war with modern technology o maxim Rapid fire gun o poison gas o Kaiser flees to Holland o Local princes and kings ousted o French control inductrial west 5 years and get indemnities, take land, cripple Germany o Communists, socialist seek reform 2 o Corrupt bankers, industrialsts, judges still there! o No draft, army reduced to 100,000 ▯ The Weimar Republic in Germany 1919-1933 Cabere Walter Rathenau Foreign Minister Shot dead in Berlin Charles M Dawes tries to stabilize economy o Democracy comes to Germany-civil rights, voting rights o Cannot recover from chaos of previous administration so blame new one ▯ Wholesale Price Index: Germany 1914-1923 Devaluation of the Mark Relation of the Mark to the Dollar Supernationalism revives Leftist strikes too Ruination of the middle class and workers Layoffs- no jobs for the young Young told they would be winners of World Was but were lied to Societal schizophrenia—2 ndself, shadows Need for scapegoats—masses are easily swayed Sexual aberations, rape, etc. ▯ Charles M. Dawes 1924 The Dawes Plan –He is a USA banker, republican lawyer 3 won Noble Prize first US budget director becomes American Vice President to Calvin Coolidge ▯ Hollywood Siphons off German Talent 1910s-1920s German-Jews o Universal Studios- carl lemmly Fritz Lang o The 1% o Could not listen to music o Teya Van…was a screen writer o What will the future of Germany be? Not fairy tales of Melies o He visits America 1924—sees incredible skyscrapers o ▯ Metropolis 1926, Just Imagine 1930, Things to Come 1935 Lang has lived through German depression Schizophrenic society Industrialist, rich bankers, military industrial complex all united to use workers & discard ▯ Montemartini Museum 2000 of 1912 Power Plant Need for rich and the workers to unite to share in society Someone to lead them and look out for young people and families Rhythm of lower city from power plant ▯ Maria and the workers Wrath Greed Sloth pride lust envy gluttony 4 ▯ science and tyrants bring evil ▯ ▯ Carl Laemmle Universal Studios Motion pictures because he wanted Jews to find jobs Wurttemberg, South Germany Comes to America-refugee Jew Oshkosh, Wisconsin 1910s Starts Universal Pictures Brings other German refugees Karl Freund, Bela Lugosi ▯ Lon Chaney he became a star of the first American horror film; he was a makeup artist and created, act his own art Phantom of Opera 1925, helped launch Universal Studios Gothic romances Schauerfilm = German film “man of a thousand faces” ▯ Thomas Edison Horrible man, tried to persuade the others not to ▯ Universal Pictures Ingredients The castle The tyrant of the castle Stimmung (Psychic acoustics) o Let the noises of creeking doors, smoke, noises of animals creating a scary atmosphere to show audience something is going to happen o Horror superstars, Lon Chaney(died young of cancer), Boris Karloff, and Bela Lugosi Lon Chaney Lon Chaney Jr. (his son, changed his name) John Polidori 1795-1821 o Varney the Vampire 1847 Bram Stoker, Author of Dracula o 1847-1912 1897 ▯ Sir Henry Irving Bad wife to make wife look bad created Dracula o Dracula with Bela Lugosi o How many characteristics that we talked about can you name here o Romanesque-Gothic 5 Richard Upjohn (1802-1878) cabinet making Migrated to Boston 1829 and began an architecture program Trinity Church 1844, New York City Priest thought it was from metropolis Frtiz Lang 1890-1976 Created movie in his 30s WWI great American depression German inflation shattering of middle class fascination for orient and American west 1914 lietant in Gernan army WWI Thea Von Harbou 1888-1954 Married to mad scientist first than to fritz lang Best selling authoeres Becomes pro-hitler 1934, divorces The Fritz Lang Dialectis Establishing the truth by means of reasoned argument First be an entertainer-movement, editing o Quick cutting, editing The underdog-struggle for success is essence of iife Dehumanization-constant struggle to avoid Kammerspiele lighting Objective correlative-object power Destiny and Chance NOT an expressionist 2 ▯ Aftermath of World War I ▯ Parisian women oh la la ▯ Farm rubes transformed ▯ Lighter clothing (saved the whales) ▯ Slender bodies ▯ Women were more brazen –women playing saxophone or smoking ▯ Generational conflicts ▯ Automobiles!! (takes ukulele in the car) Serenade then attack her, can spoon freely ▯ Emancipation of Women 1919-Prohibition 18 amendment o makes drinking and SEX REALLY naughty o speakeasy were invented, a lot of the alcohol was poisoned and caused a BIG increase in deaths 1920-19 Amendment- Women Suffrage ▯ ▯ Generation Gap Smoking, drinking Less clothes ▯ ▯ Beware of Pink Pajamas the DOLLY SISTERS Kardasians of their age Would dance together in sync and in cute costumes Slimmer look Roszika and Yancsika Fashion, lipstick, sex, freedom Pouty lips, ciagrettes, no corsets Silk and rayon 1/10 the weight of old clothes ▯ ▯ Rise of automobile and airplane Ukelele and saxophone quartet ▯ Flappy Style Irene Bordini & Freud Ran with the guys, you look like a guy Short hair, boyish, flat chested look o Slim companions to the boys ▯ Clara Bow, The “IT” Girl Elinor Glyn –peppy, outspoken, and shocking She has part “Indian” in her so she is a SAVAGE ▯ INVENTION OF RADIO Bing Crosby, Russ Columbo, and Rudy Vallee most famous cruners 1 Russ columbo died from cleaning a gun shot himself in the eye Vaughn DeLeath – first female cruner (worked herself to death) as the radio girl –horribly ugly, overweight could not get a job Frank Sinatra Sweet innocent, guy next door was not a smooth guy yet 1930-burst into the celebrity posted using old megaphone if he stood behind the microphone he would be gone, had to be given plasma and oxygen and had an iron lung ▯ Florenz Ziegfeld, Ziegfeld Follies Launch woman make superstars out of them Nude tabloids imitate famous paintings ▯ 1920s Washing Machine with Gas Heater plus indoor plumbing commercial Laundromats end of ice man each day because of electric refrigerator plugs become more common Department stores- ready-made clothes begin in 1870s Women were more free until they were married or the work force o Teacher, librarian not usually university professor Elizabeth Arden Rouge, lipstick, facial creams Slenderizers, pogo sticks, miracle cures Movie stars endorsing wirgley’s chewing gum ▯ Auguste Rollier’s Heliotherapy Clinic from 1924 on ▯ Amazing success rate with exposure to sunlight, diet, exercise, flushing system ▯ Heliotherapy- helps to cure TB ▯ Art Deco Sunburst Ciagarette Case Ahistoric Influenced by Art Noveau Influenced by Cubism Influenced by Egypt Influenced stepped pyramids Uses rich sumptuous materials o Ivory inlay o Lacquered wood o Chrome Influenced by Machine Aesthetic Influenced by Bauhaus Cult of female form o Attenuated- thin look, flappers o Amazon nudes ▯ Demetre Chiparus, Exotic Girl 1925 and the Dolly Sisters 2 ▯ Waldorf-Astoria Elevator Door, Rene Lalique Day and Night Clock 3 ▯ Busby Berekeley, women step ▯ ▯ ▯ Herbert Hoover- fairly efficient administrator, lame talker (put people to sleep over the radio) Radio- effective, power their voices to track large numbers of people, and send them money. Have a mulifuliest voice Radio Ivangelism Restaurants would throw out their food there and people would scavage for food 1929-1933 Hover years o many bank closure; 1933 hit rock bottom as a nation ▯ The Great American Depression o 1929- Stock Market Crash ▯ Herbert Hoover and Franklin Delano Roosevelt FDR could speak over the radio Not a deep thinking country/ slogans ▯ Architecture Empire state building –Raymond Shreve William Lamb, Arthur harmon 1930+ ape o Curvy, moon faced, bleach maple wood blonde, and light skin Chrysler Building 1928 Tethering towers would be used to increase the height of buildings Depression modern style of the 1930s- The rule is Streamline, simplify, and curve ▯ Radio City Music Hall 1930 Samuel Roffifel Deco and depression modern ▯ Frank Lloyd Wright Johnson’s Wax Factory, Racine, Wis. 1936-1939 Curves are restful for the eyes than angular ▯ Raymond Loewy (Master of STREAMLINING) Created the “Broadway” font on computers Go-to man to enhance the design of the company o Coca-cola- sexy, curvy young lady (figure of a women, May West) o Blenders o Refrigerator o Cars o Curve linear ▯ Chance House, Centralia, Missouri 1937 ▯ 4 ▯ Fred Astaire and Ginger Rogers Danced together Ginger died her hair blonde Made movies together RKO look, RKO pictures o Streamlining o Curvolinear movement Dance in tandem (in sync) o Fred, ginger, and her clothing Care Free movie ▯ Leo Baekland and Bakelite 1907- Fenol (Coal tar extract) plus Formadelhyde popular in 1920s and especially 1930s new multi-purpose hard durable plastic invented by a Belgian scientist studying in USA ▯ The Depression Modern Look Alice Faye- very famous in musicals Jean Harlow Maye West Shirley Temple 1936 Lincoln Zephyr 1937 ▯ Depression Glass and Flash Gordon ( Buster Crabbe) ▯ Busby Berkeley(1895-1976) -> Deco-dent, always drunk Drunk driving, wrong way driving killed three people o Slashed wrist tried to kill himself because he was allowed to walk without jail time o Served time in military could order people around easily o Develops his famous overhead boom shots from studying John o Stars from the stage, go to the fantasy world, return to stage —3 part framework 2 o Sex, closeups, cosmetics, frequent racism, sexist, 5 marriages o ▯ Anne Pavlov 1881-1931 ▯ Russian ballet star Diaghilev, famous for dying swan ▯ Romantic popularizer know for extension and pliable torso ▯ Died in train wreck from pneumonia at the age of 49 William Henry Lane (1825-1852) aka Master Juba o The juba dance known as “pattin juba” mix of European, jig, reel steps, clog and African rhythms o Clog dancer 1905 o Walrz Clog 1910s Pat Rooney Flogville collections in the world-UofA Judy Rooney her dairy is included in the collection Alunimium heel and toe taps did not appear until 1910 o Bill “Bojangles” Robinson Famous for bringing up the tap dance Grandson of slaves Stair dancing, shuffle dancing, and sand dancing (not done anymore) “The Chocolate Nijinsky” the dark cloud of joy taught Shirley temple how to tap dance ▯ The Nicholas Brothers with Hope Harold 1921-2000 Fayard 1914-2006 ▯ Flash dancing. Acrobatics, splits, leaps, and slides on blakelite floors ▯ Harold Nicholas weds Dorothy Dandridge ▯ Ray Bolger and Fred Stone Ray Bolgerwas the scarecrow in the Wizard of OZ master of eccentric dancing 3 Hal Leroy and Legomania ▯ Alfred Hitchcock 1899-1982 William Hitchcock- London poultry dealer Maps, buses and the merchant marine Obsessively meticulous th 1912-1920 Jesuit Schools (St. Ignatius of Loyola in 16 Century)- original sin we area all flawed have a problem, trace origins back to Adam and eve offspring of those sinners distrust, attraction and punishment of blonde women He’s ungainly- not really part of mainstream culture as a boy including fear of transportation Fear of the police –nuerosis he went completely insane ▯ Hitchcock in the Early Years Electrical engineering, navigation, economics, art political science 1919- Etimator for Henley Telegraph Company, electric cables art school in evening –Henley’s The Hitchcock Dialetic o German influence-stimmung, warden, psychic, acoustics, lighting and expressionism o Kammerspiele-nuance, gesture, light, shadow, background reveals inner feelings o Pure cinema- influence of silent film, influence of DW Griffith and editing o Blind justice-ineffective police o Appearance vs. reality-denial or expected ▯ Blackmail 1929 Original sin, punishment of blonde girl Stimmung-shadow self ▯ Psycho 1959 2 Hitchcock Primal Fears: naked and Unable to see ▯ 1. The paranoid universe- crisscrossing 2. Denial of the expected, opposite of what is expected 3. Black Humor 4. Build up to the big scene 5. Vertigo 6. Object Power-objects are alive as symbols and actors ▯ Crisscrossing Object in one scene causes trouble Same object appears again later in seemingly unrelated situation “parallel lines” are critical to understand ▯ Object Power In Hitchcock objects govern our lives ▯ Denial of the Expected Mass murders enjoy singing Killers reach into their pockets and pull out… ▯ ▯ Black Humor Romantic comedy in the midst of terror o Robert Cummings & Priscilla Lane Killers singing Dancing among the killers Death in a movie theater ▯ Hitchcock touches Never trust a blonde Vertigo-fear of heights Vision- blind man is the one who sees Irony- traveling circus, Esmeralda, hunchback of Notre dame The Need to trust ▯ 4 Big Scenes Defense Plant Brooklyn Navy Yard- S.S. Normandy Radio City Musical Hall Statue of Liberty 2 ▯ ▯ Post World War II Syndrome ▯ Psychoanalysis-Freud revived, repression James Dean “A Rebel Without A Cause” Elvis Presley- “he must appear, but do not show his legs” ▯ Atomic Age anxiety Duck and cover-Nuclear Threat Radiation and Religion- God is punishing us for our sins ▯ Bert the turtle Duck and cover 1944 Senator (ex marine lietenant and captain) 1949_ Russia explodes atom bomb, stolen secrets from Los Alamos 1950-Speech to wheeling, W. Va. Women’s Club: The Big List of Names 1952: re-elected, chairs HUAC 1954- Hearings televised ▯ Dalton Trumbo speaks at HUAC Are you now ot have you ever been a member of the communist party? Communists Fellow travellers ▯ Edward R. Murrow ▯ The blacklist- Dalton Trumbo, John Garfield, Larry Parks ▯ “The Front” the person who stood in and took the work ▯ Have you no decency, sir—Murrow to McCarthy Dec. 1954 ▯ ▯ J Robert Oppenheimer 1904-1967 1946-1952 principal presidential adviser on atomic energy Harvard, Cambridge, Cal tech, Berkeley Quamtum Mechanics Teacher, Nuclear Physics Father of the Atom Bomb 1946-Presidential Medal of Merit after bombing of Nagasaki 1946-1952 principal presidential adviser ▯ Ethel and Julius Rosenberg killed June 19, 1953 Executed for treason Stealing and giving the data for the H bond They thought if everyone knew the formula they would be too scared to use it on one another ▯ Theodore Alvin Hall 1925-1999 Harvard class of 1944-he’s just 19 2 Youngest superstar at Los Alamos 1944 Anguished by Hiroshima atomic bomb Agrees with Oppenheimer, must stop USA Worried about USA monopoly on nuclear There were REAL Ivy League pro-reds President Dwight Eisenhower Revokes Oppenheimer’s Security Clearence Oppenheimer removed from AEC 1953 Openheimer Branded in McCarthy Era o Dangerous unstable pinko o Mad scientists-science out of control 2 Symbolist Grows out of the romantic period, develop oneself as an individuals o Sar Joesph Peladan 1858-1918 o Most popular in 19 Century France & Belgium o Homosexual leans, have higher purpose o Michael Jackson would have been loved o Admired woman tied to pre-raphaelite o Phanfatal –terrorizing Symbolism: The Movement Ingest sugar, opium, absinthe-influence of Pre-Raphaelite Romanticism Melancholia Search for a higher reality-Josephin Peladan Fin de siècle (weariness) Rosecrucian Order o Descend from the Magi, Orpheus, and Templars o Mary Magdalen wife of Christ-da Vinci code of Dan Brown o Triumph of Mysticism over science and materialism o Dream, myth, allegory, seances Gustave Moreau 1850 Self Portrait 1826-1898 Figures with no emotion in emotional situations Influence of stained glass of Gothic churches Teacher Ecole des Beaux Arts Taught of Matisse Has huge museum for large art it becomes a chicken coop Moreau, salmone and the Head of John the Baptist Salmone’s mother weds her uncle and John is upset and rails against it Salome campaigns to have him beheaded She dances over his death and is seductress Fernand Khnopff, Sphinx or the art of caresses 1896 1858-1921 Josef Von Sternberg 1894-1969 Discover marlene dietrich o Femme fatale- women are secretly monsters, lustful destroyths o Late 18 century- Catherine the great of Russia, cuckolds husband Peter III emperor o Von Sternberg lookalikes-she’s tormenting and destroying him o His wife claims he’s obsessed with her-alienation suit o Worked in lance and hat shop in early days-shoot through gauze, translucent look 3 o Visual clutter, flashing and twinkling, dramatic lighting, cheekbones Marcel Duchamp 1887-1968 o Dada o Bicycle wheel and stool 1913, Readymade Mass produced rectified art Topsy turvy physics The new is use is useless Stand old ways on their heads Be radical, be daring, be chic, young, new Surrealism Develops out of symbolism Inward search for truth nostalgia for the past and the exotic Pro-dream Also develops out of Freud We have secret longings and phobias Dreams have their own logic Art as a key to unlock symbolism Also contains elements of dada Airless environments 2 Giorgio de Chirico, Melancholy and Mystery of a street 1914 ▯ Synthetism-combine expressive qualities of line and color with simplified or exaggerated depiction of reality Flat look, saturated color, drug-like higher reality Admiration of primitive in Martinique, ignore classical perspective and color gradation ▯ Wassily Kadinsky, Panel for Edwin Campbell No. 4 1914 Eliminate reality all together, no perspective, liberation of color & expression Color has spiritual power ▯ The Beatles, Timothy Leary, Alan Ginsberg-1960s Pop Icons Reaction to Vietnam war- TIMOTHY LEARY- Harvard psychology professor st o 1960s becomes aware of 1964 tests on LSD delysurgic 1 made in 1938 from grain turn on, tune in, drop out-labortory at Harvard for psychodrama there is a world beyond this world-transcendental meditation guru ALLEN GINSBERG- 1950s Beat Generation leader o Buddhism- no delusion, right speech, seek nirvana, right conduct, hurt no living thing, rapturous meditation, self- control, mental alertness, anti-commercialism, anti military- industrial complex, anti-war Jasper Johns 1930- o Famous 1961 exhibit at Metropolitan Muesum of modern Arts o Target with 4 faces Hard edged, disciplined line Heated wax technique Figure appear without eyes Whitney Muesum of American art 3 Flags 1958 Ellsworth Kelly 1923- o Color-field painting Red, Blue, and Green Pure sythetism with no form to detract Bridget Riley, Born 1931 London o OP Art o Optical art should move you, affect your brain o Produces trompe l’oeil effects, kinesis o Multi-dimensional o Tirigger for LSD users 3 o Movement of Lines Andy Warhol 1928-1987 o Puts it all together o Medium is the message o Comes from advertising industry o Celebrities reduced to commodities Marilyn Monroe perfect example Sheis like a commodity Or is art completely dead o Pop art Neo-Dada o Anti-establishment establishment o 1 comes to prominence 1965 o mysterious, bisexual, cool 2
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