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Week 1 - Scientific Study of Life

by: Sarah Strauss

Week 1 - Scientific Study of Life BIOL 110

Marketplace > Illinois Central College > Science > BIOL 110 > Week 1 Scientific Study of Life
Sarah Strauss
Illinois Central College
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About this Document

An organized and comprehensive summary of the material learned in the first week of lecture for BIOL 100
Life Science
Laura Bradshaw
Class Notes
Biology, life, Science




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sarah Strauss on Tuesday August 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 110 at Illinois Central College taught by Laura Bradshaw in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Life Science in Science at Illinois Central College.

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Date Created: 08/16/16
week 1 Chapter 1 - “Scientific Study of Life” Life and its Characteristics - Biology • Biology is the study of life • It involves the the observing of, describing of, experimenting on, and explaining of that which occurs naturally - What is “Life?” • Life is made of units called cells • These cells make proteins by using DNA and RNA • Cells make up every organism, or living thing • What distinguishes life from nonliving things? - 5 characteristics shared by all life: 1. All life is organized 2. All life requires energy 3. All life maintains an internal homeostasis, or constancy 4. All life reproduces, grows, and develops 5. All life evolves - All life is organized • Atoms - In chemistry, atoms are the smallest unit of an element - Examples of atoms: oxygen, hydrogen, potassium, carbon • Molecules and macromolecules - Molecules are combined atoms - Examples of molecules: CO (car2on dioxide), H O (wat2r), C H O (glu6o12) 6 - Example of macromolecules: many glucose molecules together 1 week 1 • Organelles - Organelles are macromolecules put together to make a structure inside a cell - They perform a specific function, are like tiny organs - Examples of organelles: chloroplast, nucleus • Cells - Cells are an organism’s basic unit - Can be unicellular (only one type of cell) or multicellular (multiple types of cells) - Can be prokaryotic (lacking a nucleus) or eukaryotic (containing a nucleus) - Examples of cells: red blood cell, gamete, muscle cell, nerve cell • Tissue - Tissues are made up of many cells put together - Humans have 4 kinds of tissues: epithelial, muscle, connective, and nerve - Example of tissue: mesophyll in leaves • Organs - Organs are formed by tissues working together - Examples of organs: leaf, kidney • Organ systems - Organ systems are formed of organs working together - Humans have 11 kinds of organ systems - Examples of organ systems: vascular system, nervous system • Organism - Organisms are living beings - Examples of organisms: human, dog, bacteria, fungus, algae • Population - A population consists of multiple individuals of one type of organism living in an area where they can breed with one another 2 week 1 - Consists of a single species - Example of population: a forest of acacia trees, a swarm of mosquitoes • Community - A community is a population that is together in one area - Example of a community: grass • Ecosystem - An ecosystem involves the interaction between the community in an area and their nonliving surroundings - Example of an ecosystem: savanna • Biosphere - The biosphere is the place within which organisms exist - It is the worldwide ecosystem - anywhere and everywhere on Earth and in its atmosphere where it is possible for there to be life • Emergent properties - These exist within all types of natural organization in biology - Their parts interact with one another to make new functions that are more complex - The structure is connected to the function - Example: a cell organizes with other cells to make a cell sheet, which organizes with more cell sheets to make a capillary - All life needs energy • Cycle of energy - Energy originates from the sun - Autotrophs use energy that comes from nonliving things in its environment, including the sun - Example: a plant using photosyntheses - Heterotrophs use energy that comes from other living things 3 week 1 - Example: a bug eating a leaf - Decomposers use energy that comes from dead organisms and from waste - Example: fungi breaking down dead plants - Life maintains an internal homeostasis (constancy) • Homeostasis/constancy refers to staying the same • Analogy of the thermostat - The temperature is the change - The temperature sensors in a thermostat is like the brain reacting to the change - A heater is like the effectors, which allow change • Example in an organism: shivering or sweating to maintain body temperature 4


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