HIST 2110 Class Noted
HIST 2110 Class Noted Hist 2110
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sydney Wilson on Tuesday August 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Hist 2110 at Georgia State University taught by Dr. Conner in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views.
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Date Created: 08/16/16
Part I: The Civil War 1. What advantages did each side believe it had? 2. What were soldiers fighting for? 3. How did slavery contribute to crises of morale on both sides? 4. How are war experiences & motivations different for black soldiers? April 1861, War erupted: SC fired on Ft Sumter Lincoln decides to put an end to this >border stats must decide whether to stay loyal to union or not I. Advantages A. North: 1. Population is 22 million, Manufacturing: 110k Plants (90% of iron and coal), miles of railroad (22k), 60% of livestock, 72% of food production B. South 1. Population is 5.5 million (white) and 4.5 million (blacks), 18k plants of manufacturing, 8.5k miles of railroad, 40% of livestock, 28% of food production C. International Dimension 1. Cotton Diplomacy: southerners thought they’d get international support from British a. BUTBritish finds new sources of cotton b. CSA hasn’t proven it will win c. antislavery in Britain II. Military Aspects A. Traditional vs. Modern 1.Odd conflict: one foot in future, one foot in past A. railroads, telegraph, mini ball (modern) B. No advancements in medical, no understanding of germs (disease & infection killed majority of the troops that died) Traditonal B. “Total War”: defeating civilian’s morale, destroying anything the south could use for resources. 1. Sherman’s “Neckties” (Atlanta, GA 1864) a. tearing up railroads, heating up the metal and tying it in a knot b. Sherman’s March to the Sea ATLSAV: Destroyed anything the confeds could use as resources. III. What Did They Fight For? A. Legacy of Revolution: N & S look to revolution as their motivation a. North: fighting for the republic, nation created out of revolution, do this for children, preserve the union b. South: Liberty, freedom to do what they please, protecting rights B. Slavery and Crisis of Morale 1. North: Emancipation Proclamation a. Effective Jan 1, 1863 b. freed slaves in areas of rebellion (CSA ony) c. did NOT free slaves in union border states (want to keep their elegance) d. War measure: help them win the war, this disrupts South’s labor e. blacks begin to enlist in the army f. Northerners don’t want to fight for slaves, thought they were fighting for the union... then shifted i. NYC Draft Riots (1863): whites attack black orphanage 2. South: TwentyNegro Law (1862) a. reflected confed concerns about how to preserve slavery wghen masters were at war b. on plantations of 20 or more slaves, one white man can be exempted from military service. c. problems for confed morale “Rich Man’s war, poor man’s fight” C. AfricanAmerican Soldiers 1. had trouble getting supplies, officers liked to mess with them 2. no paid the proper amount compared to whites 3. used for manual labor 4.Combat: get in line & fire then hands on combat 5. Want their families to know that they died for something good 6. Tension with white soldiers 7.* want their freedom 8.* ultimate revenge 9.* prove equality; want to sacrifice for their country 10. take up arms & defend, prove they were men. Part II: Reconstruction and the “New” South 1. What do free people value about freedom? 2. What are different approaches to recon? (Presidential vs. Congressional) 3. What does reconstruction fail? 4. How does status of blacks in the postreconstruction on south change over time? I. Freed people’s Response to Freedom A. Mobility B. Labor C. Family relations D. Cultural institutions E. Political rights Sharecropping: Landowner provides land for rent tenant farms land (payment is crops) overtime is a system of exploitation Africans try to sustain the family like whites II. Reconstituting the South A. Presidential Reconstruction: Lincoln and Johnson a. Implemented the 10% plan during the war b. For readmission into the union: i. 10% of voting population takes a loyalty oath ii. accept federal policies on slavery/emancipation. c. Andrew Johnson: i. Becomes president after Lincoln dies ii. Accepts end of slavery, but favors maintaining white supremacy iii. Fails to protest the southern black codes. d. Black Codes: i. Return blacks to subordinate status ii. Puts restrictions on blacks iii. Must have a labor contract with someone B. Congressional Reconstruction: wants more of a punishment for the south. a. military rule in south: union soldiers occupy south to enforce black suffrage b. Invalidates state gov’ts created under presidential reconstruction c. Write new state constitutions that guarantee black suffrage d. Must approve 14 Amendment then later 15 th th i. 13 thmendment: abolished slavery ii. 14 Amendment: Citizenship iii. 15th Amendment: voting can’t be denied because of race or servitude. 1. Loophole: Grandfather clause, poll tax, literacy test III. Collapse of Reconstruction A. Southern resistance: Ku Klux Klan (white terrorism) a. Leaders in the white community run the KKK b. Want to restore white supremacy B. Northern loss of will a. Getting tired of defending the blacks, have other issues to deal with C. Compromise of 1877 a. Hayes pulls troops from the south, this marks the end of reconstruction attempts. IV. Erosion of Black Gains A. Political disenfranchisement a. Political rights stripped B. Social: stripped 1. Jim Crow Segregation 2. Plessy v. Ferguson: “Separate but Equal is legal” C. Economic Part I: The Market Revolution (18151860) (6/21) 1. What factors contribute to the market revolution? 2. Why do women go to work in factories? What are some advantages/disadvantages for them? 3. What economic & social effects occur due to the market revolution? In urban/rural communities? In workplace? Family? I. Transportation Innovations Before “Transportation Revolution”: A. Corduroy Roads: path made in woods, laid down trees to create a shitty road B. People were isolated C. Traveling was slow A. Expansion of market connections 1. Connection between countryside & City 2. Improvement in transportation A. Steamboats B. Canals 1. Erie Canal (1825) a. Upstate NY, 350 Miles b. Important because it connected Albany (Hudson Bay) to NYC (options for trading), links Atlantic Seaboard. Buffalo to Lake Erie then to Ohio, Mich. c. Farmers living along the canal can have more business with deal brokers. BUT can you trust them? A lot of potential with great risk. d. Ships stuff in & out 1. You now have cash 2. Buy more manufactured goods 3. communities begin to change, growth in industries B. Growth of urban centers 1. Consecrated in the North 2. Cash crops in the South C. Growth of new industries D. People increasingly interconnected due to impersonal commercial webs 1. People become more connected with one another Family Subsistence Commercial/business Agricultural Impersonal Barter (goods, services) Cash Oriented Ripple Effect* Transportation & Manufacturing Improvements Help cause… Expanding Web of economic connections Production for external markets, not just local Growth of urban market centers (cities) II. Manufacturing Innovations A. Technological (Farmers are more productive) a. Eli Whitney’s Cotton Gin (1793) i. South: More crops to produce at a faster rate ii. North Shipped cotton to GB for textiles, North began textiles from GB b. John Deere Plow (1837) c. McCormick Reaper (1831) B. Factory Work: Lowell “Mill Girls” (1821) a. Combined steps of production in one place (stream line) b. Men had no interest in working there so they recruited women from New England i. Late teens, early 20’s. Single women also older women. c. Advantages i. Learning skills ii. Independence iii. Financial and emotional independence d. Disadvantages i. Tedious, dangerous, cut wages, speed up line, not leverage, replicable, health (breathe in cotton fibers), older women bring kids to work (no education), Avg. 14 hour work day, 6 days a week then domestic work at home. No freedom, rules III. Social Effects of Market Revolution A. Changes in workplace a. Separation of production from retail b. Master craftsmen became bosses instead of producers c. Traditional bond b/t masters & workers is altered i. Masters impose discipline ii. No longer shared outlook as producers iii. New residential patterns Ripple Effect* B. Emergence of entrepreneurial middle class IV. New MiddleClass Family: “Separate Spheres” A. Men’s roles: a. Men’s place = the world, public sphere (politics, workplace), breadwinners, upward social/ economic mobility B. Women’s roles a. Women’s place = home, Home is refuge against immoral world, domestic duties important, responsible for ensuring morals (family & society) Part II: Antebellum Reform Impulse What are common characteristics/beliefs of reform movements? (rights) What are reformers goals/tactics? (how do they do it?) What roles do women play in reform efforts? Why? (become active) Population growth & City growth within 1520 years People struggle to understand Religious revivals I. Antebellum Reform Ideology A. Second Great Awakening (18001850) i. religion appealing to the heart, an emotional experience ii. evilrepentance overcome by guilt: intense experience iii. offers an explanation of their changing society C. Common Characteristics a. Individuals can change themselves for the better and potentially improve society b. Everyone is equal in God’s eyes c. Belief in human agency, not predestination d. Belief that the millennium is imminent e. Perfectibility of individuals & society II. Types of Reform A. Utopian a. mainstream society too corrupt, must break away b. ideas of perfection, equality, communalism B. John Noyes & Oneida community a. Radical b. Reject mainstream ideas about gender equality, class, & property. c. Communal behavior (men dorm, women dorm, children dorm) d. Reject individual/exclusive attachments (community raises children) e. Complex marriage i. Everyone is married to the opposite sex f. 1870’s fell apart turned into a business C. Health Reform: Sylvester Graham i. Purify health by purifying your diet 1. It’s about what you eat & how you use your body (not too much sex) ii. Hold your impulses, selfcontrol C. Temperance: stop drinking and persuade people to stop 1. Social consequences of alcohol a. addiction, domestic&public violence, adultery, prostitution, impaired judgment, no money to provide for family, religion, risk of injury b. points to politics; candidates provide alcohol for voters 2. Women’s roles in reform a. moral power to help persuade b. stood outside bars & try to shame men c. obligation to protect society morals D. Women’s Rights Movement 1. Susan B. Anthony: temperance activist & women’s rights 2. Improve women’s legal status; married women i. few professions, higher education, property 3. Major milestones i. New York married women’s property act (1848) a. allowed woment to keep control of property she brought to marriage b. men supported it b/c they want to protect their daughters and grandchildren from asshole husbands ii. Seneca Falls Convention (1848) a Gathering of women’s right activist b Declaration of sentiments i. Dec of indp. Reverage ii. Solutions iii. Point out no rights iv. Single? No say in gov’t, but taxed 1. Taxation w/out rep 2. Want suffrage Si session: 1. Vocab speed round a. Social Darwinism: The most fit survive b. Social Darwinism: the most fit survive; whites are higher class and Africans lower class. c. Las de fair: Capitalist, should be left alone d. Jim Crow: Segregation laws e. Plethey v Ferguson: “Separate but equal is legal” f. 13 Amendment: Abolish slavery g. KKK’ White terrorism, restore white power, form of resistance from reconstruction h. Missouri Compromise: Missouri is a slave state, any state above 36 30 line can’t be a slave state, Main is a free state. i. MexAmerican War: Fought over Texas land j. Paternalism: Male ran society, males head of house (breadwinner), significant b/c it helped white men justify that they were leading by example for slaves k. Slave resistance: Turning to religion, domestic house work, masters can’t control their spirituality, White men focused on the bible verses about servitude l. Border States: Kentucky, Maryland, Arkansas, etc. Chose to be union or confed. 2. Possible Essay Questions: a. What advantages did each side believed it had? i. North: larger population, contained 90% of manufacturing (iron & Coal), more railroads, contained 60% of livestock, 72% of food production, factories ii. South: thought it would be a quick war, thought they would defend their borders, home field advantage, cotton diplomacy (international support from British), thought it would be a defensive war, better generals, too larger to conquer their territory. b. How did slavery contribute to crises in morale on both sides? i. North: The union did not have slavery, they had men fighting for them later on when Emancipation Proclamation became effective. They were originally fighting to preserve the union but changed when they had to fight for slaves. Upset because they were putting their lives on the line. They felt betrayed (NYC Draft Riots 1863). ii. South: Emancipation Proclamation was passed it pissed them off. The slaves began to rebel and join the union army. The south began to lose their property. Twenty Negro law: if a master has over 20 slaves they would not have to serve in the army. “Rich Man’s war Poor Man’s fight”. The wealthy did not have to go and fight. Eman Pro draws slaves out the south/caused chaos. .. took south’s labor source. c. What are different approaches to Reconstruction (Presidential vs. Congress)? i. Presidential: Lincoln: 10% plan. 10% of state’s population must take a loyalty oath, accept federal policies on eman proc (conservative) . Andrew Johnson accepts end of slavery wanted white supremacy and failed to protest the southern black codes. He basically let the south do what they wanted regarding laws on blacks. ii. Congress: They establish a military role in the south, they felt the union fought for nothing, they put in new state constitutions to guarantee black suffrage kicked the Confed states out and informed a punishment, must accept 14 and later 15 amendment. Invalidates state gov’t under presidential reconstruction. Write a new state constitution, state must approve it then congress. Road to Revolution 1. What are the effects of the French and Indian War? 2. What are British taxation policies and how/why do colonist respond? Conflict –Cold War French & British both wanted Ohio 91754) o “First world war” Guerilla Warfare, British have to adjust British win expensive war Consequences: o *Territory French gave up all N. American territory (Canada, Parts of Miss Valley) Native Am. Becomes the threat Violence between English and Indian settlers Proclamation of 1763 o Prohibited white settlement West of App, Mnts Colonist’s contributions toward not acknowledged Feel being treated a second class citizens Psychological issues o Washington wasn’t able to become a soldier because came from Virginia, not England Slap in the face, looked @ 2 class; inferior General Braddock’s defeat 1775 o America realized British soldiers aren’t invisible, not as intimated Biggest consequence of French & Indian war was DEBT –affects everyone without consent o Tax colonist to pay off war debts: Stamp Act 1765 Tax on paper Colonist mad because taxation w/o Direct tax to raise money Virginia Resolves Colonist are full British citizens (not inferior to NE citizens) Only colonial legislatives can tax colonists –NOT parliament (bold by Pat Henry) o Treason o Says parliament & king have no power o Sons of Liberty Protest stamp act (repeal stamp act b/c nightmare) 1767 Townshend Duties taxes on specific imports non consumption (boycotts) o women & their ideal start to take on symbolic & patriotic meaning o 1768 Brit gov’t sent troops to Garrison, Boston The Boston Massacre 5 dead colonist propaganda builds support for patriot cause, cause people to choose sides. Hewes – becomes a patriot knows someone killed o Serves in patriotic militia After Tea party o Coercive/intolerable Acts Intended to isolate punish Massa. For rebels Closes Boston Harbor Shuts down Massa gov’t (takes away right to rule selves) 1 Continental congress respond to act Lexington of Concord o Mass. Militia Vs. British soldiers o Declaration of Independence Consent of the gov’t King George has become a tyrant Obligation to overthrow gov’t Does not create new gov’t
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