Market Revolution class notes
Market Revolution class notes Hist 2110
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sydney Wilson on Tuesday August 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Hist 2110 at Georgia State University taught by Dr. Conner in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views.
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Date Created: 08/16/16
Part I: The Market Revolution (18151860) (6/21) 1. What factors contribute to the market revolution? 2. Why do women go to work in factories? What are some advantages/disadvantages for them? 3. What economic & social effects occur due to the market revolution? In urban/rural communities? In workplace? Family? I. Transportation Innovations Before “Transportation Revolution”: A. Corduroy Roads: path made in woods, laid down trees to create a shitty road B. People were isolated C. Traveling was slow A. Expansion of market connections 1. Connection between countryside & City 2. Improvement in transportation A. Steamboats B. Canals 1. Erie Canal (1825) a. Upstate NY, 350 Miles b. Important because it connected Albany (Hudson Bay) to NYC (options for trading), links Atlantic Seaboard. Buffalo to Lake Erie then to Ohio, Mich. c. Farmers living along the canal can have more business with deal brokers. BUT can you trust them? A lot of potential with great risk. d. Ships stuff in & out 1. You now have cash 2. Buy more manufactured goods 3. communities begin to change, growth in industries B. Growth of urban centers 1. Consecrated in the North 2. Cash crops in the South C. Growth of new industries D. People increasingly interconnected due to impersonal commercial webs 1. People become more connected with one another Family Subsistence Commercial/business Agricultural Impersonal Barter (goods, services) Cash Oriented Ripple Effect* Transportation & Manufacturing Improvements Help cause… Expanding Web of economic connections Production for external markets, not just local Growth of urban market centers (cities) II. Manufacturing Innovations A. Technological (Farmers are more productive) a. Eli Whitney’s Cotton Gin (1793) i. South: More crops to produce at a faster rate ii. North Shipped cotton to GB for textiles, North began textiles from GB b. John Deere Plow (1837) c. McCormick Reaper (1831) B. Factory Work: Lowell “Mill Girls” (1821) a. Combined steps of production in one place (stream line) b. Men had no interest in working there so they recruited women from New England i. Late teens, early 20’s. Single women also older women. c. Advantages i. Learning skills ii. Independence iii. Financial and emotional independence d. Disadvantages i. Tedious, dangerous, cut wages, speed up line, not leverage, replicable, health (breathe in cotton fibers), older women bring kids to work (no education), Avg. 14 hour work day, 6 days a week then domestic work at home. No freedom, rules III. Social Effects of Market Revolution A. Changes in workplace a. Separation of production from retail b. Master craftsmen became bosses instead of producers c. Traditional bond b/t masters & workers is altered i. Masters impose discipline ii. No longer shared outlook as producers iii. New residential patterns Ripple Effect* B. Emergence of entrepreneurial middle class IV. New MiddleClass Family: “Separate Spheres” A. Men’s roles: a. Men’s place = the world, public sphere (politics, workplace), breadwinners, upward social/ economic mobility B. Women’s roles a. Women’s place = home, Home is refuge against immoral world, domestic duties important, responsible for ensuring morals (family & society) Part II: Antebellum Reform Impulse What are common characteristics/beliefs of reform movements? (rights) What are reformers goals/tactics? (how do they do it?) What roles do women play in reform efforts? Why? (become active) Population growth & City growth within 1520 years People struggle to understand Religious revivals I. Antebellum Reform Ideology A. Second Great Awakening (18001850) i. religion appealing to the heart, an emotional experience ii. evilrepentance overcome by guilt: intense experience iii. offers an explanation of their changing society C. Common Characteristics a. Individuals can change themselves for the better and potentially improve society b. Everyone is equal in God’s eyes c. Belief in human agency, not predestination d. Belief that the millennium is imminent e. Perfectibility of individuals & society II. Types of Reform A. Utopian a. mainstream society too corrupt, must break away b. ideas of perfection, equality, communalism B. John Noyes & Oneida community a. Radical b. Reject mainstream ideas about gender equality, class, & property. c. Communal behavior (men dorm, women dorm, children dorm) d. Reject individual/exclusive attachments (community raises children) e. Complex marriage i. Everyone is married to the opposite sex f. 1870’s fell apart turned into a business C. Health Reform: Sylvester Graham i. Purify health by purifying your diet 1. It’s about what you eat & how you use your body (not too much sex) ii. Hold your impulses, selfcontrol C. Temperance: stop drinking and persuade people to stop 1. Social consequences of alcohol a. addiction, domestic&public violence, adultery, prostitution, impaired judgment, no money to provide for family, religion, risk of injury b. points to politics; candidates provide alcohol for voters 2. Women’s roles in reform a. moral power to help persuade b. stood outside bars & try to shame men c. obligation to protect society morals D. Women’s Rights Movement 1. Susan B. Anthony: temperance activist & women’s rights 2. Improve women’s legal status; married women i. few professions, higher education, property 3. Major milestones i. New York married women’s property act (1848) a. allowed woment to keep control of property she brought to marriage b. men supported it b/c they want to protect their daughters and grandchildren from asshole husbands ii. Seneca Falls Convention (1848) a Gathering of women’s right activist b Declaration of sentiments i. Dec of indp. Reverage ii. Solutions iii. Point out no rights iv. Single? No say in gov’t, but taxed 1. Taxation w/out rep 2. Want suffrage
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