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Chapter 5: Entering the Social World

by: Siân L'Roy

Chapter 5: Entering the Social World Psych 2314

Marketplace > Tarrant County College District > Psychology (PSYC) > Psych 2314 > Chapter 5 Entering the Social World
Siân L'Roy


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About this Document

This chapter covers attachment styles between mother and child. Also we learn when children learn certain emotions and how children understand cues from their caregivers.
Developmental Psychology
Dr. Vince Limbo
Class Notes
developmental psychology
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Siân L'Roy on Tuesday August 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 2314 at Tarrant County College District taught by Dr. Vince Limbo in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Tarrant County College District.


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Date Created: 08/16/16
Chapter V: Entering the Social World Erik Erikson­ Psychosocial Development  Eight stages  Developmental Crisis  Series of Conflicts  Resolution  Adequate  Inadequate Trust vs. Mistrust (infancy to one year of age)  Safety and Security  Trust in predictability of their environment  Faith in “self”  Allows intimacy  Acquires “Hope” o openness to new experiences o Tempered by discomfort may arise Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt (one, two, three years of age)  Act independently  Explore and manipulate things  Trust in one’s abilities  Self­ esteem: how a person sees themselves and judges themselves  Gives rise to “will” o Knowledge that, within limits, the child can act on their world intentionally Initiative vs. Guilt (three to six years of age)  Take some responsibility for themselves  Begin to understand opportunities that are available o Explore adult roles e.g. mother, teacher, doctor  Guilt from conflict with others  Achieves Purpose o Balance between individual initiative and willingness to cooperate with others Attachment  Mary Ainsworth’s Strange Situation Experiment  Four Types of Attachment Chapter V: Entering the Social World 1. Secure Attachment (Healthy) a. May or may not cry when mother leaves b. Wants to be with mother when she returns c. If the child is crying, they will stop 2. Avoidant Attachment (Unhealthy) a. Not upset when mother leaves b. May ignore mother when she returns 3. Resistant Attachment (Unhealthy) a. Upset when mother leaves  b. Remains upset or angry when she returns c. Difficult to console 4. Disorganized Attachment (Unhealthy) a. Confused when mother leaves and returns b. Not really understanding what is happening around them Consequences of Secure Attachment  Higher­quality and fewer conflicts in their friendships  Less likely to have behavior problems in school  Promotes trust and confidence in others Determinates of Attachment Quality  Caregiver’s response is… o Predictable o Appropriate o Responsive o Sensitive Daycare  Secure mother­infant attachment occurs regardless of o Quality of child care o Amount of time child spent in care o Age child begins care o How frequently parents change arrangements o Type of child care (e.g. at center or non­relative at home)  Insecure mother­infant Attachment o More common with combination of less sensitive mothering and low­quality or  large amounts of child care Chapter V: Entering the Social World Emotions (In regards to infants and toddlers)  Three elements o Subjective feeling (happy, sad, or mad) o Physiological change (heart rate, sweaty palms) o Overt behavior  Functional and Adaptive o Fear o Happiness Lewis’ Theory  Newborns o Pleasure and distress (Lewis 2000)  2 to 3 months of age o Joy  4 to 6 months of age o Fear o Stranger awareness Child must have some understanding of “self”  15 to 18 months of age o Pride  o Guilt o Embarrassment Social Referencing  Infants in unfamiliar environments o Looks at caregiver for cues to interpret the situation  Begins around 6 months of age  Two Unfamiliar Toys o Mother expresses disgust at one toy but not the other o Child avoids disgust toy and plays with the other toy


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