NHM 361 8/19/2016
NHM 361 8/19/2016 NHM 361
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Vanessa Notetaker on Tuesday August 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to NHM 361 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Amy Cameron Ellis in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Nutritional Biochemistry in Nutrition and Food Sciences at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 08/16/16
Lecture 1: Chemistry Review and Biochemistry Review 1.Levels of Structural Organization In the Body A. Atoms and molecules Make up The simplest functional unit in the body (cells) Make up Tissues(as a result of cell differentiation as opposed to cell division) Make up Organs Make up Organ Systems (Integumentary, Skeletal, Muscular, Nervous, Endocrine, Cardiovascular, Lymphatic, Respiratory, Digestive, Urinary and Reproductive) Make up Organism 2. Homeostasis A. Maintains steady state within the body and when homeostatic imbalances occur feedback loops help return to homeostasis i. Blood glucose is regulated on a negative feedback loop with its use of glucagon and insulin. Glucagon increased blood sugar by breaking down glycogen insulin does the opposite. ii. Calcium homeostasis is also essential and rarely varies from 10 mg/dL in blood. PTH plays vital role in Ca homeostasis and when there are excesses in Ca in the blood calcification of tissues occurs as well as heart arrhythmias 3. Energy A. Defined as the capacity to do work B. Kinetic energy is energy in motion that is present in molecules in motion C. Potential energy is the stored energy in objects D. Main source of energy in the human body is Adenosine Triphosphate or ATP that is produced from the breaking down of chemical bonds and using that potential energy i. 1 law of thermodynamics- Energy cannot be created or destroyed ii. Digestion doesn’t destroy food energy it transforms it from potential energy in bonds to kinetic energy 4. Matter A. Anything that has mass and takes up space. Matter is composed from atoms. i. Atoms are units of matter that create all chemical substances a. Elements are specific individual atoms and are a type of atom b. Most common elements in the human body are Carbon, Oxygen, Nitrogen and Hydrogen c. Trace elements are elements that are only present in minute quantities but are essential because they assist metabolic pathways and some are catalysts ii. Atoms contain protons, electrons and neutrons. a. Protons are positively charged and are in the nucleus as well as neutrons that do not have a charge a. When the number of neutrons in an atom differ they are considered isotopes and isotopes(stable) have functions as tracers and can mark food to be tracked in the body as well as other things b. Popular isotopes are Deuterium, tritium and phenylalanine b. Electrons exist in the electron cloud that surrounds the nucleus and have a negative charge a. The electron cloud is composed of a number of shells in which the innermost shell holds up to 2 electrons and the outermost shell holds 8 electrons. The outermost shell is called the valence shell and the electrons that occupy it are called valence electrons b. Atoms will follow the octet rule (in general) and for maximum stability will strive to get 8 electrons in their valence shell c. When atoms have an electron in excess (as opposed to a neutral atom that has the same number of protons and electrons) the atom is negatively charged and considered an Anion a. AN(egative)ION d. When an atom has more protons than electrons it carries a positive charge and is considered a cation iii. From the most amount of electron transfer in a bond to the least the order is ionic, covalent and hydrogen a. Ionic bonds form from a complete transfer of electrons like when Na reacts with Cl. i. Na gives up its one valence electron to satisfy the octet of Cl who had seven valence electrons b. Covalent bonds partially share electrons and can be nonpolar or polar . i. Nonpolar covalent bonds result from the equal sharing of electrons in a bond ii. Polar covalent bonds result from the creation of temporary dipoles in a bond when one element is more electromagnetic than the other iii. Carbon is unique because it can form 4 covalent bonds (may be in form of double or triple bonds) c. Hydrogen bonds are between the two different molecules such as the oxygen of one water molecule to a hydrogen of ANOTHER water molecule. i. Original bond in water is not destroyed but the electrostatic forces are what create the hydrogen bond ii. Hydrogen bonds are responsible for the double helix shape in DNA and the presence of water’s surface tension 5. Reactions A. Synthesis reactions are occurring to go from multiple reactants to the creation of a new product i. Creation of polypeptide chains FROM amino acids B. Decomposition reactions are when there is a single reactant that is broken down into multiple products i. Digestion has a number of decomposition reactions where the last reaction is the break-down of disaccharides like sucrose into glucose and fructose C. Factors that affect the rates of reactions are temperature, concentration of reactants and products and enzymes/catalysts i. Increasing temperature increases the rate of reaction with the subsequent increase of kinetic energy ii. Catalysts and enzymes increase the rate of reaction (enzymes are biological catalysts)
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