PSC 101 Tuman Week 1 Lecture Notes
PSC 101 Tuman Week 1 Lecture Notes PSC 101
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Stephanie Smith on Tuesday August 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSC 101 at University of Nevada - Las Vegas taught by John Tuman in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Intro American Politics in Politica science at University of Nevada - Las Vegas.
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Date Created: 08/16/16
Wk 1 Monday Freedom, order, + equality Political Socialization - Process through which individuals acquire and form political values Refers also to formal or informal learning about politics - parties, issues, candidates, elected ofﬁcials ect. Note: research suggests political knowledge varies in the population Socialization may inﬂuence how we perceive our economic interests, and the candidates and issues we support Sources of political socialization 1) Family -strong association between parents’ values, party and that of their children 2) Ethnicity, Race, and Gender These variables tend to inﬂuence individual experiences they also have an impact on socialization, attitudes, values, (and even party ID) 3) Schools 4) Neighborhood, Community, & Region 5) Religion 6) Occupation, associations (eg unions), clubs 7) Social Media Political Values and Ideology: Some Examples Overview: freedom, order, and equality -the particular way in which individual conceive of freedom, order, and equality varies by socialization freedom of vs freedom from Moral order vs Hobb’s conception of order Political equality supported by everyone, equality of result very controversial 1) Conservatives: social issues: While valuing freedom (over equality), social conservatives place weight on a broad view of order - a moral order. Economic freedom is important, but they are willing to restrict social freedom when it comes into conﬂict with their vision of a moral order and identity. economic issues: Value freedom - particularly economic freedom - over order and equality. Interested in smaller government, less taxation, and regulation. Are willing to tolerate some freedoms. 2) Liberals: Social issues: Liberals value freedom on social issues, although sometimes they use an “equality frame” to them Wk 1 Tuesday Models of American Democracy A) Overview -Two types of theories: Normative and Empirical we focus on empirical B) Pluralist Model of Politics - goal is to explain why things are the way they are in American politics 1) Assumptions of the theory -Citizens are not directly involved in everyday politics -interest groups are the key actors in politics -groups exist on a fairly level playing ﬁeld -Politicians have one major interest: reelection 2) Pluralist explanation of political outcomes -politics is a “marketplace” for inﬂuence -structure of government allows many points of access -there are many policy domains; each policy areas has its own groups that compete for inﬂuence an are usually tied to a congressional committee and a speciﬁc agency for department in bureaucracy - Groups ——Committees —— Agency -Demand-side: Goups seek to inﬂuence law, policy -Supply-side: Elected ofﬁcials, others, provide access and votes in exchange for support -The basis of group inﬂuence -Politicians: Seek reelection, make strategic calculations about which groups to ally with (the more a politician thinks that a group can inﬂuence his ability to get reelected, the more likely he is to meet their needs) -Factors that determine a group’s potential inﬂuence -Size (membership) -Density of group membership in an electoral district -Cohesiveness of the group (do group members follow signals sent by group leaders when they vote?) -Resources at group’s disposal (ofﬁces, lobbyists, etc.) -Competitiveness of the election -Outcomes may change over time -Politics is an “iterated” game - groups that have inﬂuence at one point in time may suffer setbacks later on; this ﬂuidity adds legitimacy to the system Wk 1 Wednesday Elite theory US Capitalist system Market Economy -Owners and workers -Elite model assumes that ownership is heavily concentrated -social class US Constitution -Overview -not assumed to be self-enforcing; citizens and people in government must enforce what the constitution says -Main Principles 1. Separation of Powers -Congress: Propose, make laws -Article I, Section 7: Congress (House) proposes revenue bills -Article I, section 8: Congress’ enumerated powers (examples: taxation, borrowing, regulate commerce, currency, post, declare war, determine structure of federal courts below Supreme Courts, etc.). Also establishes its implied powers. -President: Enforce laws (and other powers) -Article 1, Section 3: Laws are faithfully executed, commission ofﬁcers, appoint ambassadors -Article 1, Section 2: Examples: Commander of military; pardons; make treaties (subject to senate approval), ﬁll vacancies while Congress is in recess, etc. -Judicial: Interpret Laws (and the constitution) -Article 3, Section 1; Provides court’s “original jurisdiction” Court’s power of judicial review established in the case of Marbury v Madison (1803) 2. Checks and Balances Executive: President may veto legislation (Article I, Section 7); executive orders (Article II, Section 1) Congress: House and Senate may over-ride a veto with a vote of 2/3 in each house (Article I, Section 7); impeachment power (Article I, Sections 2 & 3) Judicial: Judicial review (Marbury establishes this as an implied power, given Article III). 3. Federalism Article IV, Section 2: Supremacy Clause - federal laws and treatises are supreme and must be followed; if state laws are not consistent with federal, then federal, then federal must be followed. Example: Obergefell v Hodges (2015), striking down state laws and constitutions which prohibited same sex marriage; roy Moore, Chief Justice of Alabama SC, initially resisted the ruling, but came under criticism. 10th Amendment 4) Republican Form of Government Representation; prohibition on hereditary ofﬁces; no ofﬁcial religion or religious test Direct election of Representatives (Article I, Section 2) and Senators (Article I, Section 3 - modiﬁed via 17th amendment, 1913) Indirect election of the President (Article II, Section 1, Electoral College; 12th Amendment) Article I, Section 9 - Prohibition on titles/nobility Article VI - No religious test ever as requirement for ofﬁce. Amendment 1: No establishment of religion Examples of Civil Rights and Liberties 1. Press, Speech, Assembly Amendment I 2. Religion Amendment I 3. Rights of the Accused and Other Individual Rights Amendment IV (Speech and Seizure) Amendment V (Grand Jury; due process; double-jeopardy; self-incrimination; just compensation for taking of property) Amendment VI (Speedy trial; impartial jury; confront witness; right to counsel) Amendment VIII (bail, cruel and unusual punishment) 4. Due process / Equal Protection Amendment XIV (Due process, equal protection); only gradually used to apply other rights to states in 20th century 5. Voting Rights for African-Americans, Women Amendment XIX, granting women the right to vote
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