PSC 101 Tuman Week 3 Lecture Notes
PSC 101 Tuman Week 3 Lecture Notes PSC 101
Popular in Intro American Politics
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Stephanie Smith on Tuesday August 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSC 101 at University of Nevada - Las Vegas taught by John Tuman in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Intro American Politics in Politica science at University of Nevada - Las Vegas.
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Date Created: 08/16/16
Wk 3 Monday I. Presidency A. Roles / Functions 1. Constitutional Roles a) approve / veto legislation b) negotiate foreign treaties (has a team who actually does this) c) Commander in Chief (See war powers resolution) (1) Since WWII, the interpretation has changed to give the power to commit troops into combat at least for a short period of time d) appoint ofﬁcials 2. Set goals a) Since Kennedy administration (maybe earlier) (1) Kennedy set goal of putting humans on the moon in a certain period of time 3. Reassure public in times of crisis a) Giving the public a sense of what the government is doing with regard to national security threat b) Eg. Bush (1) Katrina vs 9/11 (a) low level of attention on Katrina and ﬂood control system - seen as a slow reaction 4. Economic Management 5. Party Leader a) Bill Clinton, historically democrats were anti-free trade, Clinton changed that as president 6. World Leaders B. Management in the White House 1. Executive Ofﬁce of the President a) 4,000 employees; chief of staff b) National security staff c) Ofﬁce of Management and budget (1) Forecasting (inﬂation, unemployment) (a) Inﬂation because costs of gov goods will increase and thus affect the budget (b) Unemployment because when unemployment increases, demand for government services increases 2. White House Ofﬁce a) Smaller than Executive ofﬁce of the President - total of 27 different parts (1) Domestic Policy Council (2) National Security Advisor (3) National Economic Council b) Leads to questions about models of management (1) Strong chief of staff model (a) Thought to have been associated with Reagan, Bush 43, kind of Obama i) In Bush administration, VP Cheney played this role (b) Presidents are busy, there is a lot of information for them to digest before making a decision, this can quickly become overwhelming for a president (c) Willing to delegate a certain amount of authority, esp. to a strong chief of staff (d) Defended by presidents on ground of efﬁciency i) Disadvantage - more dependent on information ﬂow (2) Hub and spoke Model (a) No strong gatekeeping (by chief of staff or cabinet) on information to the president (b) Bill Clinton (before his impeachment) and Jimmy Cater i) both known for appetite for information, liked to read through a lot of technical documents (c) arguably more inefﬁcient i) Advantages - president can evaluate independently c) Dynamics of Presidential Approval and Re-election (1) Economic Inﬂuences (a) Pocketbook model - developed 1978 by Fiorina p 141 i) when voters think about whether or not they approve / would re-elect the president, they think about their own income or their own economic position retrospectively - past 12-18 months (b) Sociotropic Model - develop 1988 by Lewis-Beck p 141 i) based on feelings about overall feelings about the economy as a whole; do you believe that there is a lit of unemployment, inﬂation, economic growth retrospectively - past 12-18 months (c) Data suggest that Sociotropic model is the most valid (2) Foreign policy is not salient (a) Are exceptions i) long wars - the longer a war, the more it affects public opinion ii) terrorism (3) Partisanship ID has strong effect Wk 3 Wednesday Most Citizens have a very negative view of bureaucracy, political scientists have a neutral view of bureaucracy I. Bureaucracy A. Overview 1. Function a) Implementation - Putting polices / laws into practice - policies and laws are not self-executing, someone has to implement them —> this makes bureaucracy necessary b) Rule making c) Interpretation of law B. Types of Bureaucratic Organization 1. Federal department Secretaries 2. Independent Executive agencies a) CIA b) NASA 3. Independent Regulatory Commissions a) Federal trade commission, consumer product safety commission — make regulations and enforce them 4. Public corporations a) market failure - private sector refuses to do something because high risk, low proﬁt b) Quasi-public organization (1) Eg Amtrak - subsidized (2) National Science Foundation (3) National Endowment of Arts (4) National Endowment of Humanity (a) Federal funding of art is controversial and caught up in cultural wars particularly with social conservatives C. Performance of Bureaucracy 1. Ways research has tried to measure the success of bureaucracy a) Productivity / Efﬁciency b) Customer service c) Effectiveness 2. Design / Resource a) Sometimes congress will intentionally block funding to agencies / bureaucratic organizations to make the organization ineffective by design or by constraining resources (1) Ways to do this (a) limit funding for employees (b) limit ﬁnes i) Make it so that the private sector will determine “it is rational for us to pollute and pay the ﬁne” (2) Organizational Capture (a) ﬁeld staff (b) Stockholm syndrome - After captives are with their captors, the captive begins to adopt the point of view of the captor i) the ﬁeld staff (those monitoring and regulating people) end up spending a lot of time with the people they are supposed to regulate and end up empathizing with them and not enforcing regulations (1) FAA inspectors (2) Social Servies (a) Early intervention services (b) When caseworkers went into the home (3) Employment / Compensation Regulation (a) If you want to understand performance, you have to understand the incentive structure (b) Employee’s Utility Function i) max income ii) min effort iii) employment constraint (the ﬁrm can still afford you) (c) For most federal employees, they get the same pay or pay increase regardless of performance (d) seniority rule i) employment “last hired, ﬁrst ﬁred” (e) entry level pay (4) Proposals (a) Change employment / compensation i) tie compensation to performance ii) eliminate seniority rule iii) discretion / negotiation over entry level pay (b) Privatization i) radical ii) outsource to contractors iii) rural areas have already privatized ﬁre and EMS services iv) Private Prisons (1) do less training for prison guards and staff (2) poor record in: (a) providing health care (resulted in several wrongful death lawsuits) (b) have a higher ratio of inmates to correction ofﬁcers Wk 3 Thursday I. Federal Courts A. Structure 1. Federal District Courts a) Hear 2 types of cases (1) Criminal Cases (2) Civil Cases - suits that qualify under federal guidelines b) Federal judges are not elected and they serve for life c) More specialized courts called Article I courts (separate from rest of structure) (1) US Tax Court (2) US Court of Appeal for Veterans Claims 2. Federal Courts of Appeal a) 13 federal appellate courts b) Normally cases heard by 3 judge panel rather than by full court (with few exceptions) (1) If you do not like the outcome, you can ask the entire court to hear your case 3. US Supreme Court a) 9 justices b) In the event that the court is perfectly split (4-4), the ruling decision from the federal court of appeal is upheld c) Has Original Jurisdiction and Appellate Jurisdiction (1) Majority of cases heard by the Supreme Court are appellate cases which they hear because the cases raise questions about the constitution / interpretation (appeals from state supreme courts and federal appellate courts) B. Review Process and Decision Making in US Supreme Court 1. US Supreme court gets many thousands of requests to hear an appeal. They only take about 75 per year. a) “writ of certiorari” b) Rule of 4 - 4 out of 9 justices must agree to hear the case c) law clerks (1) Signiﬁcant Federal Constitutional question (2) Split in Circuits (3) Reverse precedent (a) Example: Roe v Wade - Texas banned abortion i) Court said women had inferred privacy rights which covers medical rights, but this has to be balanced with the gov’s interest in protecting rights d) Asking for briefs (a) Solicitor general - the law ofﬁcer directly below the attorney general in the US Department of Justice, responsible for arguing cases before the US Supreme Court (b) Friends of the Court Briefs (2) Oral argument (3) Conference (a) Voting - majority rule (b) assignment to vote for majority (c) dissent - reasons why you disagree with the majority