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Chapter 1 Notes

by: Lauren Heller

Chapter 1 Notes CJ100

Lauren Heller
GPA 4.0
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About this Document

These notes were take from the in class lecture and cover chapter 1
Criminal Justice 100
Stephen Clipper
Class Notes
Criminal, Justice, Criminal Justice




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lauren Heller on Wednesday August 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CJ100 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Stephen Clipper in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views.


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Date Created: 08/17/16
Chapter 1  Crime in the United States  Everyday we are confronted with reports of crime in the news media  Crime and criminal justice area concern to American public  The sensational crimes reported by the media do not provide a very accurate picture of the crimes typically committed, nor do they accurately depict the kinds of crime to which police respond on a daily basis  Police rarely respond to the sensational crimes reported by the media  An Institution of Social Control  Criminal justice is an institution for social control, as are  The family  Schools  Organized religion  The media  The law  Defining an institution of social control  An organization the persuades people, through subtle and not-so- subtle means, to abide by the dominant values of society  Subtle means of persuasion include gossip and peer pressure, whereas expulsion and incarceration are examples of not-so-subtle means  As an institution of social control, criminal justice differs from the others in two important ways  It is concerned only with behavior that is defined as criminal  It is society’s “last line of defense” against people who refuse to abide by dominant social values and commit crimes  Criminal justice in the US is administered by a loose confederation of more than 50,000 agencies of federal, state, and local government  Together they are commonly referred to as the “criminal justice system”  The police  The courts  Correction  The criminal justice system operates differently in some jurisdictions, but there are also similarities  The Police  The criminal justice response to crime begins when a crime is reported to the police, or when the police discover a crime has been committed  Police investigate crime  If the investigation is successful, police arrest a suspect  After the arrest, the suspect is booked at the police station  Arresting and Booking  Arrest  The seizing and detaining of a person by lawful authority  Booking  The administration recording of an arrest  Typically, the suspect’s name, the charge, and perhaps the suspect’s fingerprints or photograph  Courts  After a suspect has been arrested and booked, a prosecutor reviews the facts of the case and the available evidence  The prosecutor decided whether to charge the suspect with a crime  If no charges are filed, the suspect must be released  Pretrial Stages  After the charges have been filed, the suspect is brought before a lower-court judge for an initial appearance and is given formal notice of the charges against him/ her  Defendant  A person against whom a legal action is brought, a warrant is issued, or an indictment is found  Initial appearance  A pretrial stage in which a defendant is brought  In the case of a misdemeanor or an ordinance violation, a summary trail may be held  In case of a felony, a hearing is held to determine whether the defendant should be released or whether there is probable cause to hold the defendant for preliminary hearing  Ordinance violation, misdemeanor, and felony  Ordinance violation – usually the violation of a law of city or town  Misdemeanor- a less serious crime generally punishable by a fine or by incarceration in jail for not more than one year  Felony- a serious offense generally punishable by confinement in prison for more than one year or by death  If the suspect is to be held at a preliminary hearing find probably cause, the defendant is bound over for possible indictment or arraignment  In states that do not utilize preliminary hearings, an arraignment date is scheduled at the initial appearance  The grand jury determines whether these is a probably cause to believe that the accused committed the crime with which the prosecutor has charged him/her  Once an indictment or information is filed with the trial court, the defendant is scheduled for arraignment  About 95% of criminal defendants plead guilty to the charges against them, in the arrangement called plea bargaining  Plea Bargaining  The arraignment is the pretrial stage to hear the information or indictment and allow to plea bargaining  Plea bargaining is the practice whereby a specific sentence is imposed if the accused pleads guilty to an agreed upon charge or charges instead of going to trial  Trial  If defendant pleads not guilty or not guilty by reason of insanity, a trial date is set  Bench trial – a trail before a judge, without a jury  If defendant if found guilty as charged  The judge begins to considers a sentence  Due Process  The idea that we are willing the let guilty people go free in order to protect the innocent  ON TEST


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