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HORT 3440 August 17 Lecture Notes

by: Morgan Notetaker

HORT 3440 August 17 Lecture Notes HORT 3440

Marketplace > University of Georgia > HORT 3440 > HORT 3440 August 17 Lecture Notes
Morgan Notetaker
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About this Document

These are the lecture notes from August 17th. It is basically over the travel or spices and herbs around the world and the role they played in the global trade market.
Herbs, Spices, and Medicinal Plants
James Affolter
Class Notes
horticulture, Herbs, spices
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Morgan Notetaker on Wednesday August 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HORT 3440 at University of Georgia taught by James Affolter in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views.


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Date Created: 08/17/16
8/17/16 Plants Important in Cooking and Cuisine  Most herbs and spices come from 3 main parts of the world o Europe and Mediterranean o Old World Tropics (India, Far East, Eastern Hemisphere) o New World Tropics  In antiquity, spices used for… o Flavoring o Food o Medicine  Many inhibit bacterial growth  In study of 30 herb/spice extracts, all inhibited or killed at least ¼ of bacterial species  Four most potent in the study killed all (garlic, onion, allspice, oregano)  Example: Listerine’s active ingredients are all plant products  Eucalyptol (Eucalyptus), Menthol (Peppermint), Methyl Salicylate (Wintergreen), and Thymol (Thyme) o Perfume o Ceremonies/ Rituals o Preserving Foods  Evidence of trade in antiquity over large distances trading these herbs and spices o Example: Mummies from ancient Egypt  Take them apart and analyze the chemicals of the plants used to prepare and preserve the mummies  Some plants used were local (Cumin, Anise, Marjoram)  Others had to have been traded (Cinnamon from India and Sri Lanka, Myrrh from Africa, Frankincense from Africa) o Example: Stories told from hieroglyphics  Picture of Egyptian Queen Hatshepsut’s expedition in 1500 BC to Land of Punt  Brought back Myrrh trees o Example: Eber’s Papyrus form 1500 BC  65 ft long scroll of difference herbal prescriptions (over 700)  Includes things they would have had to trade for to have gotten  Trade Routes o In place for 5000 years o Spices among the most valuable trade items back then o Desire from European countries for these herbs/ spices is what sparked the trading and expeditions o Europe traded with Malabar (ginger, pepper), Caylon (cinnamon), Spice Islands and Indonesia (cinnamon, nutmeg, mace, cloves)  What was going on in the Middle East determined whether Europeans had access to these spices or not o During Roman times, conquest of Middle East resulted in flow of spices from Far East to Europe o Dark Ages (476-1096): Arabs control spice trade and cut off European access  “Muslim Curtain”  Arabs continue spice trade for their own use  Fun Fact: Prophet Mohammed was a spice trader o End of Crusades (1096): Europe exposed to the Middle East  Desire to break Arab monopoly and have European access to the spices  Overland routes to India, China, South East Asia send spices to Venice and Genoa  Why these city states became so wealthy, which helped fund the Renaissance o 1400’s: Turkish Empire expends and cuts off European access  Lead to Europeans to try to find direct sea routes to the Far East  1498: Vasco De Gama reaches India so Europe can cut out middle men  1560: Direct sea routes and reopening of overland routes  Fuels Age of Exploration  Age of Exploration o Portuguese dominate the Asian trade o Then the Dutch kick out the Portuguese and have monopoly for 200 years o Then the British get control in 1796 o Colonialism: Spice plants transported globally  Botanical Gardens were centers of introduction for spices/ herbs/ plants


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