BIOE 2010 Notes Week 1
BIOE 2010 Notes Week 1 BIOE 2010
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sara Littlejohn on Wednesday August 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOE 2010 at Clemson University taught by Dr. Alexis and Dr. Webb in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 72 views. For similar materials see Intro to Biomedical Engineering in Bioengineering at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 08/17/16
Biomaterials: Properties and Characterization Biomaterials: a nonviable (non-living) material used in a medical device, intended to interact with biological systems Selection Criteria: Availability Ability to be processed into desired form Mechanical properties o Fatigue strength: related to cyclic mechanical load o Wear resistance: related to loss of material when exposed to mechanical action on the surface Non-toxic o Corrosion resistant Biocompatible Serializable Stability/Degradability Metals (Mostly) crystalline solids composed of elemental, positively charged ions High strength and stiffness o Stiffness: related to how the material returns to its original shape after wear o Strength: related to how much force a material can take before it breaks High conductivity Isotropic properties Properties are well known Relatively bio inert (will cause no biological reaction) All metals used as biomaterial are alloys o Advantage: alloys prevent/reduce corrosion Metals are rarely found in nature in pure form and purification requires tremendous energy input. Corrosion is energetically favorable because it transforms the pure metal back to the lower energy oxidized form. Gold and Platinum have little reactivity with oxygen and water so they experience very little if any corrosion (Noble Metals). o Occur in nature in pure forms o Limitations: expensive, poor mechanical properties Ceramics Corrosion resistant Low conductivities Stiff and brittle Bioactive (Has a biological response in contact with cells or tissue) Mostly used as a coating for metal implants (corrosion resistant, bioactive, semi-conductors) Polymers Limitless variety of chemical, physical, and biological properties that can be tailored to specific biomedical applications Proteins are polymers made of Amino Acids Polymer Structures: o Linear o Branched o Networks Polymer Composition: o Homopolymers: composed of a single monomer o Co-Polymer: composed of two monomers Can be random, alternating, block, or graft Plasticizers are small molecules that can be added to a polymer to lower its glass transition temperature. o Two types: Polyols Organic esters GPC (Gel Permeation Chromatography) or SEC (Size Exclusion Chromatography) are used to find molecular weight of a polymer. o Long chains are represented by tall humps in the graph because long chains flow around the beads and come out before the short ones that enter the beads and diffuse before exiting. o If the peak is wide- multiple MWs o If the peak is narrow- 1 MWs Semi crystalline structures: have both crystalline and amorphous regions Increased Crystallinity= o Increased melting point o Increased strength o Decreased permeability DSC (Dynamic Scanning Calamity) tells us thermal properties
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