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Exceptional Lives: Special Education in Today's Schools - Chapter 1 Notes

by: Gabriela Ledezma

Exceptional Lives: Special Education in Today's Schools - Chapter 1 Notes SPE 222

Marketplace > Arizona State University > SPE 222 > Exceptional Lives Special Education in Today s Schools Chapter 1 Notes
Gabriela Ledezma
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Outline notes for chapter 1
Orient to ED Exceptional Child
Class Notes
specialeducation, Education, secondary education




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Gabriela Ledezma on Wednesday August 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SPE 222 at Arizona State University taught by in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views.


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Date Created: 08/17/16
SPE222 Chapter 1 Profile of Special Education Students & Personnel in Today’s Schools - Disability affects 13% of the U.S. school population - Universal Design: Teachers design their lessons accessible to all students. Who Are the Students? - Special Education: specially designed instruction at no cost to a child’s parents that meets a child’s unique needs in school. Total Number of Students Served - 2011 to 2012 o 336,519 infants and toddlers in the U.S. received early intervention services o 730,558 preschool children received early childhood services between the ages of 6 through 21 received some type of special education. o Total: 6,737,757 students - Gender: o Females: 1/3 of students o Males: 2/3 of students - Gifted Students o Also served by special education o Percentage ranges from as low as 1.7% to a high of 22.3% o About 3.2 million students are seen as gifted (7% of school population) o Females slightly outnumber males - Disability Categories o Specific Learning disabilities: 36% o Speech or language impairments: 21% o Other health impairments: 12% o Autism: 7% o Intellectual disability: 7% o Development delay: 6% o Emotional disturbance: 6% o Multiple disabilities: 2% o Hearing impairment: 1% o Orthopedic impairment: 1% - Labels & Language o Labeling can lead educators to make biased decisions about a students’ strengths and needs. o Be cautious about using labels o Abandon the word handicap & use disability more. o Use people-first language, put “people” before the disability Who Teaches Student with Exceptionalities? - General & Special Education provide instruction to students with exceptionalities - 393,061 special education teachers are employed to teach age 3 through 21 - Not all special education professionals are teachers. Overview of the Law & Special Education - For more than 30 years, the education of students with disabilities has been governed by a law that congress enacted in 1975 called the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) - Two Types of Discrimination th o In the early and middle years of the 20 century, students with disabilities have been discriminated in schools in two different ways:  First: excluded, not being provided with an effective or appropriate education  Second: misclassification, classified students as having disabilities who in fact did not have disabilities o In the early 1970s, parents and families began to sue state and local school officials, claiming that exclusions and misclassification violated the students’ right to an equal opportunity under the U.S. Constitution o Students are student, regardless of their race or disability - Judicial Decisions & Legislation o In 1972, federal courts ordered the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania and the District of Columbia: 1. Provide free appropriate education to all students with disabilities 2. Educate student with disabilities in the same schools and basically the same programs as students without disabilities 3. Put into place certain procedural safeguards so that parents of students with disabilities could challenge schools that did not live up to the courts’ orders o Today the challenge is to provide access and ensure that students really do benefit o Four Outcomes: 1. Equality of Opportunity 2. Full participation 3. Independent living 4. Economic self-sufficiency The Span of Special Education: Birth through Age 21 - Having enacted IDEA in 1975 to benefit students ages six through twenty- one - Law applies to infant and toddlers now - Consist of two parts: o Part B  Benefits students ages 3 through 21  Eligible students, IDEA combines a categorical approach with a functional approach o Part C  Benefits children under 3 years’ old who: 1. Needs early intervention services because of developmental delays in one or more of the areas of cognitive development, physical development, communication development, social or emotional development, and adaptive development 2. Has a diagnosed physical or mental condition that has a high probability of resulting in a developmental delay Special Education & Students’ Eligibility - Where Special Educational is Provided o Special education occurs in classrooms, students’ homes, hospitals and institution, and other settings - Components of Special Education o Special education is individualized to the student IDEA: Six Principles - Zero Reject o Prohibits schools from excluding any student with a disability from appropriate public education o To ensure that all children and youth, no matter how severe their disabilities, will receive an appropriate education provided at expense. o Applies to the state and all of its school districts and private schools, state operated programs such as schools for students with visual or hearing impairments, psychiatric hospitals, and institution for people with other disabilities o Educability  Courts have ordered state and local education agencies to provide services to children to children with who traditionally have been regarded as not able to learn because of the profound extend of their disabilities o Discipline  General principles: 1. Equal treatment 2. No cessation 3. Unique circumstances 4. Short-term removals 5. Manifestation determinations 6. Response to no manifestation 7. Response to manifestation 8. Services in interim alternative education settings 9. Weapons, drugs, & injury - Nondiscriminatory Evaluation o Two Purpose  To determine whether a student has a disability  To identify the special education and related services that the student will receive o Nondiscriminatory Evaluation Requirements  Leads to the student’s appropriate education  The evaluation leads to IEP decisions about program and placement - Appropriate Education o Schools still do not ensure that students’ education will be appropriate and beneficial o The key to an appropriate special education is individualization o Educators individualize by developing an individualized education program (IEP) for each student ages three through twenty-one o Children from birth through age two and their families receive an individualized family services plan (IFSP) o Through IDEA’s appropriate education requirements:  The participants who develop the IEP  The components of the IEP  Timelines  IEP conferences - Least Restrictive Environment o Mainstreaming or integration and now known as inclusion o THE Rule: A Presumption in favor of Inclusion  A school must educate a student with a disability with students who do not have disabilities to the maximum extent appropriate for the student  A school may not remove the student from the regular education environment unless, because of the nature or severity of the student’s disability, he or she cannot be educated there successfully, even after the school provides supplementary aids and support services for the student. o Access to General Education Curriculum  IDEA specifically states that the education of children with disabilities can be made more effective by having “high expectations” for them and ensuring their maximum access to the general education curriculum in the regular classroom in order to meet both their developmental goals and, to the greatest extent possible, the challenging academic expectations established for all children o Setting Aside the Presumption  The school may set aside this presumption of inclusion only if the student cannot benefit from being educated with students who do not have disabilities and only after the school has provided the student with supplementary aids and services in general education settings o Extracurricular and Nonacademic Inclusion  Schools also have to ensure that students with disabilities may participate in extracurricular and other nonacademic activities and services such as meals, recess periods, counseling, athletics, transportation, health services, recreational activities, special interest groups or clubs, and referrals to agencies that assist in employment and other aspects of life outside school - Procedural Due Process o Seeks to make schools and parents accountable to each other for carrying out the student’s IDEA rights o When parents and educators disagree, IDEA provides each with three different ways to resolve their disagreements:  They may meet face to face in a resolution session. Second, they may resort to mediation  They may resort to mediation.  If the parties still cannot resolve their disagreements, each has a right to a due process hearing (a mini-trial) before an impartial hearing officer o The due process hearing is similar to a regular courtroom trial - Parent and Student Participation o Less adversarial accountability technique: the parent-student participation principle o Parents have the right to have access to school records concerning their child and to control who has access to those records - ESEA and other Federal Laws o Elementary and Secondary Education Act as Amended by No Child Left Behind Act  It authorizes services for all children, including those with disabilities. Congress amended it in 2001 by enacting the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB). Consistent with current practice, we will refer to the federal law as ESEA, but you may hear people speak about NCLB o Rehabilitation Act  Authorizes services for people with disabilities o Tech Act  The Technology-Related Assistance to Individuals with Disabilities Act of 1988 (as amended), often called the Tech Act, grants federal funds to the states so that they can help create statewide systems for delivering assistive technology devices and services to people with disabilities, including students with disabilities


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