Economic Criminals CRIM 1307
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Natalie Notetaker on Thursday August 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CRIM 1307 at University of Texas at Dallas taught by Haley Zettler in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 7 views.
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Date Created: 08/18/16
1. blue collar a. traditional forms of theft such as larceny/burglary 2. development of white collar and green collar crime a. more prominent during industrial era b. Edwin Sutherland first defined white collar criminals 3. blue collar a. occasional criminals i. thefts committed by opportunistic criminals b. situational inducement c. professional criminals i. make significant amounts of income from theft 4. UCR reports more than 6 million acts of theft annually 5. NCVS estimates more than 12 million thefts annually 6. types a. petty larceny b. grand larceny c. shoplifting i. common, usually opportunistic ii. highly undetected iii. controlling shoplifting 1. target removal and hardening 2. merchant privilege laws a. reasonable grounds b. short detention c. conduct themselves reasonably d. credit card theft i. estimates credit card thefts cost billions each year ii. committed by amateurs iii. merchants often foot the bill e. auto theft 1. one of most highly reported crimes (75%) 2. joyriders 3. short and long term transportation 4. commission of another crime 5. professional car thieves ii. preventing auto theft 1. lojack systems f. bad checks i. naive check forgers ii. systematic forgers g. receiving and fencing stolen property i. must show they knew the property was stolen when they received it 7. unlawful entry of a structure to commit theft or felony 8. types a. residential b. commercial 9. nature and extent of burglary a. according to UCR more than 2.1 million burglaries occur each year b. rates have increased 2% since 2002 10. careers in burglary a. often learn skills from experienced burglars 11. arsen a. willful, malicious burning of home, public building, vehicle, or commercial building i. 50,000 arsons reported annually ii. emotionally disturbed iii. professionals who set fires to gain profit 12. defined as any business related act that uses deceit, deception, or dishonesty to carry out a criminal enterprise a. members of all social classes engage in white collar crime b. estimates that it costs hundreds of billions yearly c. vary from individual acts using businesses, as well as businesses collectively engaging in criminal behavior 13. business frauds and swindles a. people using business position to trick others out of their money b. ponzi schemes 14. chiseling a. using illegal means to cheat an organization, consumers, or both, on regular basis b. professional chiseling c. financial chiseling 15. exploitation a. threaten to withhold service 16. influence peddling a. using one’s institutional position to grant favors and sell information to which one’s coconspirators aren’t entitled i. in government 1. steering government contracts ii. in criminal justice 1. judges, police taking bribes iii. in business 1. record companies bribing radio stations 17. embezzlement a. use of one’s position to embezzle company funds or appropriate company property for themselves b. the company or organization is victim 18. client fraud a. theft by an economic client from an organization that advances credit to its clients or reimburses them for services render b. health care fraud c. tax evasion 19. corporate crime a. when powerful institution or representatives violate the laws that restrain, these institutions for doing social harm or require them to do social good i. illegal restraint of trade 1. Sherman Antitrust Act: criminal and civil sanctions to any person who engages in restraint of interstate commerce ii. price fixing 1. 2 or more competitors agree to sell similar products or services at an agreedon price iii. false claims advertising 20. green collar crimes a. legalist i. violations of existing criminal laws designed to protect people, the environment, or both b. environmental justice i. believe violations of existing laws is too narrow ii. concern of third world nations who have meager regulatory laws c. biocentric i. any human activity that disrupts a Biosystem, destroying plant and animal life d. worker safety/environmental crimes i. illegal logging 1. illegal logging is $15 billion/year industry 2. illegal wildlife exports a. $3 billion/year industry 3. illegal fishing 4. illegal dumping and polluting a. criminal environmental polluting 21. why commit white/green collar crimes? a. rational choice: greed i. believe the potential benefits outweigh costs b. rational choice: need i. have overwhelming financial or psychological need c. rationalization/neutralization view i. use of rationalizations by offenders to resolve the conflict experienced over engaging in illegal behavior d. corporate culture i. some business organizations promote white collar offending ii. place excessive demands on employees while maintaining a business climate tolerant of employee deviance iii. example: Enron 22. motives for whitecollar crimes are the same as for other criminal behaviors 23. offenders have low self control and are inclined to follow momentary impulses without considering long term consequences 24. environmental laws a. clean water act 1972 b. emergency panning and community right to know act 1986 i. companies must disclose info about toxic chemicals c. endangered species act 1973 d. oil pollution act 25. deterrence versus compliance a. compliance strategies: methods of controlling white collar crime that rely on the threat of economic sanctions or civil penalties to control potential violators b. deterrence strategies: methods of controlling white collar crime that rely on punishment to deter wouldbe violators
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