Crimes of New Millennium
Crimes of New Millennium CRIM 1307
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Natalie Notetaker on Thursday August 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CRIM 1307 at University of Texas at Dallas taught by Haley Zettler in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 6 views.
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Date Created: 08/18/16
1. transnational organized crime a. crimes that cross international borders and involve execution of illicit ventures by groups or networks of individuals in more than one country 2. illegal copyright infringement a. warez i. game or application that is made available for use on internet in violation of its copyright protection b. file sharing i. allowing internet users download music and other copyrighted material without paying royalties c. MGM Studios, Inc. v. Grokster (2005) i. ruled software distributors could be sued for inducing copyright infringement if they market filesharing software that might induce people to illegally copy protected material d. computer fraud i. salami slice fraud 1. illegally removing small sums from balances of large number of accounts and converting them for personal use 3. distributing illegal or dangerous services or materials a. distributing obscenity i. requires porn distributors maintain records showing that all performers were over the age of 18 at the time of production ii. illegal to peddle virtual kiddie porn if seller advertises the images as real or promises to deliver images of children even if they don’t exist b. distributing dangerous drugs i. estimated 365 sites offering drugs for sale 4. denial of service attacks a. extorting money from internet service user by threatening to prevent user from having access to service b. several ways to happen i. attempts to flood a computer network ii. attempts to disrupt connections within computer network iii. to prevent particular person from accessing service iv. disrupt service to specific system or person 5. interent securities fraud a. pump and dump i. placing deceptive info online to get unsuspecting investors interested in stock while selling previously purchased stock at inflated price b. cyber smear i. negative info is spread online about a stock, driving down its price and enabling people to buy it at artifically low price c. fraudulent offerings of securities i. no actual investment made, paid with investments from earlier investors (similar to Ponzi) d. illegal touting i. being paid to make securities recommendations and not disclosing they are being paid e. phishing and identity theft i. identity theft 1. using internet to steal someone’s identity and/or impersonate victim to conduct transactions ii. phishing 1. creating false emails or websites that look legitimate to gain access to personal information iii. etailing fraud 1. illegally buying and selling merchandise on internet 2. shoplisting a. obtaining legitimate receipt from store b. returns to store and takes products and receipt to returns department and attempts to return them for either cash or store credit c. sells gift card on internet 6. some cybervandals target computers and networks seeking revenge for some perceived wrong 7. some desire to exhibit their technical prowess 8. some wish to highlight vulnerability of computer security systems 9. some desire to spy on other people’s private financial and personal information 10. some want to destroy computer security because they believe in open access 11. worms, viruses, trojan horses, logic bombs, and spam a. viruses and worms i. disrupts or destroys existing programs and networks, causing to perform task for which virus was designed b. computer viruses i. malware: a malicious software program c. trojan horses i. looks like benign application but contains illicit codes that can damage system’s operations d. logic bombs i. slag code 12. website defacement a. occurs when computer hacker intrudes on another person’s website by inserting or substituting codes that expose visitors to site to misleading or provocative info b. not profit driving c. 70% appear pranks though some events have political motive 13. cyberstalking a. can be sexual predators 14. cyberbullying a. defined as willful and repeated harm inflicted through electronics i. sending harassing emails or instant messages 15. how common is cyberbullying a. 20% students report being target b. girls more likely being victims 16. cyberspying a. illegally using internet to gather info that is considered private and confidential b. may invovle domestic disputes, business rivals to steal info 17. cyberspoionage a. efforts by intelligence agencies to penetrate computer networks of enemy nation in order to steal important data 18. cyberterrorism a. motived attack against info, system, programs, and data which results in violence 19. why terrorism in cyberspace? a. vulnerability 20. funding terrorist activities a. charities and bogus companies 21. illegal copying a. value of pirated material: $60 billion b. pirates usually young man 22. computer security breaches a. 350 corporations found ½ of respondents reported at least 1 security incident in past year 23. identity theft a. losses around $5 billion/year 24. cybervandalism a. hard to estimate b. billions of attacks have been reported as blocked each year 25. legislation has been passed to try to prevent cybercrime a. criminal to knowingly cause transmission of program, code, or command, and as result intentialy cuasing damage 26. international treaties a. signed by 43 nations b. allowed law enforcement ability to require a service provider monitor person’s online viewing 27. cybercrime enforcement agencies a. internet fraud complaint center run by FBI 28. characteristics of transnational organized crime a. continuous commitment by primary members b. usually hierarchical structure c. primary goal is economic gain d. employ predatory tactics e. human trafficking, narcotics smuggling, illegal gambling, theft rings f. depends heavily on internet g. don’t include terror groups, but may overlap 29. rise of transnational gangs a. eastern european gangs i. balkans, often engage in human trafficking b. russian transnational crime groups i. killings for hire, money laundering c. latin american and mexican drug cartels i. drug money d. asian transnational groups i. human trafficking, narcotics, money laundering 30. controlling transnational crime a. several international working groups to share info 31. anti organized crime laws a. racketeer influenced and corrupt organization act (rico) b. enables prosecutors to bring additional criminal and civil charges against people whose multiple criminal acts constitute a conspiracy
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