New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

General Biology 115: week 1 notes

by: Ed Mirfin

General Biology 115: week 1 notes 01:119:115

Marketplace > Rutgers University > Biological Sciences > 01:119:115 > General Biology 115 week 1 notes
Ed Mirfin
View Full Document for 0 Karma

View Full Document


Unlock These Notes for FREE

Enter your email below and we will instantly email you these Notes for General Biology 115

(Limited time offer)

Unlock Notes

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Unlock FREE Class Notes

Enter your email below to receive General Biology 115 notes

Everyone needs better class notes. Enter your email and we will send you notes for this class for free.

Unlock FREE notes

About this Document

These notes cover everything discussed during the first week of lectures. Ranging from course policy to basic chemistry needed for the rest of the course.
General Biology 115
Class Notes




Popular in General Biology 115

Popular in Biological Sciences

This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ed Mirfin on Thursday August 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 01:119:115 at Rutgers University taught by Keating in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see General Biology 115 in Biological Sciences at Rutgers University.

Similar to 01:119:115 at Rutgers

Popular in Biological Sciences


Reviews for General Biology 115: week 1 notes


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 08/18/16
(9/6) I. Course policy: 1. Do the policy acknowledgement 2. Book for course is Campbell Bio 10th edition(use  other editions at your own risk) 3. Skim book before lecture B. Exams: 1. First midterm: Sunday oct. 16 3:00 ­ 4:20 PM 2. Second midterm: Sunday, nov. 13 3:00 ­ 420 pm 3. Final: Saturday Dec. 17th 4:00 PM II. Goals of workshop: A. Workshop helps to learn material 1. Ability to form memories 2. Use memories to problem solve 3. MANDATORY 4. Bring notes to workshop 5. Will not re­lecture material III. Memory and learning A. Brain 1. Neuronal plasticity a) Dynamic and changeable (1) Remodeled after  birth(experience) b) Synapses are junctions between  neurons c) Activity dependent d) USE IT OR LOSE IT B. Figure 49.20 1. Lots of activity = many connection 2. Lack of activity = loss of connections C. Memory 1. Forms at chemical synapses 2. Neuronal plasticity + activity 3. Short­term memory(STM) a) Released if not relevant(not used) 4. Encoding a) Transfer from short­term memory to  long term memory(LTM) b) Long term potentiation(LTP) (1) the increase in  strength of nerve impulses along pathways that have been  used previously 5. LTM a) Activated when information needs to be retrieved (1) Retrieved into STM D. Figure 49.21 E. Learning 1. Memory does not equal learning 2. Learning is ability to make use of it in a practical  circumstance 3. Learning is use of memory to decrease likelihood of negative outcome(bad grade on test) 4. How to learn a) Discuss b) Practice c) Teach d) Organization e) Study in segments(no all nighters) (1) Repetitive signal at  synapses (2) Come back to  reactivate the signal f) Determine what you really know and verify you understand it(problems) 5. LTP and learning require energy, effort, and  persistence  F. Goals of workshop 1. Improve ability to form memories 2. Use of memories to learn and problem solve 3. Long term memory? a) Activity dependent b) Be active and use information c) Long term potentiation and memory  formation facilitated by organization d) BIOs forms help with organization e) Meaningful associations f) Chunks ­ learning sets of info as  chunks IV. Themes of biology A. Emergence: the whole is more than just the sum of its parts 1. Emergent properties result from the arrangement of properties 2. A bunch of bicycle parts are not the same as a  bicycle B. Levels of biological organization ­ a hierarchy C. Reductionism ­ the reduction of complex systems to simpler  components that are easier to study D. Evolution is core theme of biology  1. The unity and diversity of organisms E. All life is related ­ divided into 3 domains 1. Bacteria 2. Archaea 3. Eukarya (9/9) I. Methods of investigating biology A. Science 1. Stems from curiosity 2. Inquiry ­ the search for natural causes for natural  phenomena 3. Something that can be observed or measured(no  super natural) 4. Systematic manner(process) B. Inductive reasoning 1. Start with large number of specific observations 2. From observations make generalizations 3. Ex: darwing a) Found that finches varied across the Galapagos Islands b) Populations were geographically  isolated (1) Variations between  subspecies varied more with distance c) Noticed finches adapted and  evolved to fit their habitat d) Generalized the Theory of Evolution C. Deductive reasoning 1. Start with a general premises a) Testable hypothesis b) Design experiments c) Observe specific results d) Prove or disprove hypothesis D. Scientific method 1. Start with an observation, problem, or pattern 2. Gather background information 3. Develop scientific hypothesis a) Proposed explanation for problem b) Educated guess c) Tentative explanation for problem or  pattern d) NOT a theory e) Falsifiable (no evidence to support = false f) Leads to predictions ­ can be tested  and repeated g) Ex; hypothesis: if (premises) all  organisms are made of cells, and humans are organisms, then  (prediction) humans have cells 4. Experiments / observation a) Test prediction b) Series of ordered steps c) Statistics ­ evaluate significance of  the results (1) If prediction is not  wrong you “don’t reject the hypothesis” (2) If prediction is wrong  you “reject the hypothesis” 5. Experiment a) Must be able to be repeated in  another lab and results verified b) Figure 1.22 c) Flexibility in the scientific process d) Figure 1.23 E. Language of science 1. Theory ­ hypothesis with significant support from  testing a) No question on whether it is true or  not 2. Law ­ statement of what always occurs under  certain circumstances  II. Basic elements of chemistry  A. Expected to understand concepts in chapter 2.1­2.4 and 3.1­3.2 1. Elements 2. Chemical symbols 3. Atoms 4. Subatomic particles 5. Atomic number 6. Atomic mass B. Electron (e⁻) 1. One unit of negative charge around atomic nuclei 2. Potential energy stored in electron a) Potential Energy ­ energy that  material possesses due to location or structure b) Work ­ capacity to cause change 3. Shell a) Where electrons are found (1) Electrons have a  different energy level in different shells (2) Electrons have  potential energy due to distance from nucleus (3) When electrons  absorb energy they move to a higher shell (4) When electrons  released energy fall back to original level b) Ex: respirations / photosynthesis 4. Valence electron a) Occupy valence shell (outermost  shell) b) H + He ­ valence shell is full when it  has 2 electrons c) All other atoms ­ full with 8 electrons 5. Electrons are only subatomic particles directly  involved in chemical reactions a) Chemical bonds result when atoms  share electrons C. Molecules ­ compound in which 2 or more atoms are combined in  a fixed ratio and joined strongly to form a stable particle 1. Chemical formula ­ ex(H2O) 2. Molecular mass ­ sum of atomic mass in that  molecule a) Ex: H2O      H = 1 dalton              O=16 daltons b) (2x1 dalton) + (1x16 daltons) = 18  daltons 3. Chemical equation ­ description of chemical  reactions 4. Chemical bonds a) Result from atoms sharing electrons b) Bound energy (1) Represent certain  amount of chemical energy per bond c) Electronegativity ­ measure of an  atom's attraction for electrons in chemical bonds (1) The more  electronegative an atom is the more strongly it pulls  electrons toward itself (2) Common electro  negativity values (a) Oxyge n = 3.5        Carbon = 2.5 (b) Hydrog en = 2.1     Nitrogen = 3.0 (c) Sulfur  = 2.5 (d) Oxyge n is the most electron greedy (3) Difference in  electronegativity values between 2 atoms determine the  type of bond that forms (a) If  same(or very similar value) then electrons are  shared equally in a nonpolar covalent bond (b) If  different but still < 2 then electrons are shared  unequally in a polar covalent bond (c) If  difference is > 2 electrons will be captured by the  more greedy atom in an ionic bond D. Covalent bonds 1. Sharing of electrons between atoms a) Result in each atom having a filled  outer shell b) Strong bond c) Figure 2.9 + 2.10 2. Non polar covalent bond(O2) a) Electrons are shared equally 3. Polar covalent bonds a) One part of the molecule has more  electrons than the other part b) One part has a partial positive  charge c) One part has a partial negative  charge d) Ex: H2O, electrons hang around  oxygen more e) Overall charge of molecule is still  neutral E. Ionic bonds 1. Ion ­ electrically charged atom or group of atoms a) Anion ­ negative charge, gained 1 or more electrons b) Cation ­ positive charge, lost one or  more electron 2. Like charges repel opposite attract a) This law forms ionic bonds 3. Ex: Na+ + Cl­  →  NaCl 4. Hydrophilic a) Interact with water b) Bond is broken in water(dissolves) c) Figure 3.7 F. Van Der waals interaction 1. Nonpolar molecule 2. Sometimes electrons move around making slight  partial negative or positive charges a) This is because electrons are  constantly moving and may group in certain regions of a molecule 3. Adjacent molecules interact with these regions 4. Weaker than bonds 5. In large numbers or if shapes allow for close  contact these small interactions become significant G. Hydrogen bonds 1. When hydrogen combines with a very  electronegative atom it acquires partial positive charge 2. H2O molecules interact with each other via H  bonds a) H2O can form H bonds with 4 other  H2O molecules III. Emergent properties of water A. Cohesive ­ sticks to itself 1. Ex: surface tension ­ how difficult it is to break the  surface of a liquid a) Surface of water molecules are very  ordered with lots of H bonds, strong surface tension B. Adhesive ­ sticks to another surface 1. Ex: Capillary action ­ tendency of H2O to rise in  small spaces of hydrophilic material 2. Cohesion and adhesion figure 3.3 C. Stable temperature 1. High specific heat ­ takes lots of energy to raise the temperature of water a) Takes energy to break the H bonds 2. High heat of vaporization ­ takes lots of energy to  break the H bonds and go from liquid to gas a) Evaporative cooling D. Expands on freezing ­ ice floats 1. About 15% of H2O molecules are hydrogen bonded to 4 other molecules in liquid state 2. All of H2O molecules are hydrogen bonded to 4  other molecules in solid state 3. Ice is less dense that water E. Solvent 1. Hydrophilic substances ­ affinity for H2O region of  partial positive and partial negative regions 2. Hydrophobic substances ­ no affinity for H2O a) Nonpolar and nonionic 


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

0 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Anthony Lee UC Santa Barbara

"I bought an awesome study guide, which helped me get an A in my Math 34B class this quarter!"

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.