Week 1 Lab Notes
Week 1 Lab Notes CBIO 2200 L
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bailey Dickinson on Thursday August 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CBIO 2200 L at University of Georgia taught by in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see CBIO 2200 L in CBIO at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 08/18/16
Introduction to the Human Body Topics Covered Organization of the body, Anatomical position, Sectional planes of the body, Directional terms, Organ systems, Body cavities, Regions of the body, Regions of the abdomen Introduction Physiology is the study of organ function and interaction. Physiology may be studied from the molecular level to the organism level. The hierarchical levels of organization of the human body from the smallest structure to the largest structure are molecular, cellular, tissue, or gan, system, and organism. The body’s largest organ system is the integumentary system, which consists of skin and its associated structur es. The surface tissue of skin is a barrier that protects internal structures and fluids from potentially harmful microorganisms and other toxins. Section 1.3.1- Organization Anatomical Position Anatomical position is used as a standard frame of reference for describing the relationship of anatomical structures, anomalies, injuries and pathologies during dissection or treatment of a patient. When a person or cadaver is in anatomical position, he or she is standing erect, with feet flat on the floor, arms at the sides, palms and eyes facing forward, eyes open. Descriptions of left and right always refer to the subject’s left or right. Anatomical Planes Anatomical planes are imaginary flat surfaces passing through the body. Anatomical sections are anatomical views in which the body is cut on a plane. There are 4 planes: coronal or frontal, sagittal, transverse or horizontal, and oblique. • The frontal, or coronal plane divides the body into front and back portions (or anterior and posterior). • The sagittal plane divides the body into left and right halves. A midsagittal plane divides the body equally into left and right halves, while a parasagittal plane falls off center of the mid-line of the body. • A transverse or horizontal plane divides the body into upper and lower portions (superior and inferior). • And oblique plane passes through the body at an oblique angle. Section 1.6.4- Body Planes Directional Terms Directional terms are terms used to describe the location of one body part relative to another. Useful in referring to an injury, disease, or pain in that area. Useful in naming bones or muscles. Distal and proximal are only applied to structures on the limbs. They include: Superior (or cranial)- above or higher than another part of the body Inferior (or caudal)- lower or below another part of the body Anterior (or ventral)- towards the front of the body Posterior (or dorsal)- towards the back of the body Superficial- closer to surface of body Deep- further from the surface of the body (underneath superficial) Proximal- nearer to the point of attachment or trunk of the body Distal- further from the point of attachment or trunk of the body Medial- closer to the middle of the body Lateral- further from the middle of the body Figure 1.13- Directional Terms Applied to the Human Body Section 1.6.2- Regional Terms Prone describes a facedown orientation, and supine describes a face up orientation. In this image, the left side is representative of anatomical position, while the right side is representative of a posterior view. Organ Systems There are 12 organ systems: the integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous, lymphatic, reproductive, endocrine, cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive, renal and sensory systems. The pictures list a different 12 than the list above. The list above count the male and female reproductive systems together and adds the sensory nervous system. The list above also uses the term “renal” instead of urinary. The sentence below refers to the 12 systems in the figure below. “So Many Individuals Love Eating Nachos. Can Males and Females Resist Unwanted Dining?” Figure 1.4- Organ Systems of the Human Body Figure 1.5- Organ Systems of the Human Body (continued) Body Cavities There are two major body cavities: • The dorsal (posterior) body cavity, which is made up of the cranial cavity and then vertebral cavity • The ventral body cavity (also called the coelom , or anterior), which is made up of the thoracic cavity and the abdominopelvic cavity. • The thoracic cavity contains the pericardial cavity and two pleural cavities. The mediastinum is the region of the thoracic cavity that contains the heart, the large vessels, the thymus gland, trachea, and the esophagus. • The adominopelvic cavity contains the abdominal and p elvic cavities. (Figure 1.15- Dorsal and ventral Body Cavities; section 188.8.131.52- Subdivisons of the Posterior (Dorsal) and Anterior (Ventral) Cavitites) Regions of the Body The term “brachium” or “arm” is reserved for the “upper arm” a nd “antebrachium” or “forearm” is used rather than “lower arm.” Similarly, “femur” or “thigh” is correct, and “leg” or “crus” is reserved for the portion of the lower limb between the knee and the ankle. Section 1.6.2- Regional Terms Figure 1.12 Regions of the Human Body Regions of the Abdomen There are 9 regions and 4 quadrants. Subcostal line- top line Intertubercular line- bottom line The more detailed regional approach subdivides the cavity with one horizontal line immediately inferior to the ribs and on e immediately superior to the pelvis, and two vertical lines drawn as if dropped from the midpoint of each clavicle (collarbone). There are nine resulting regions. The simpler quadrants approach, which is more commonly used in medicine, subdivides the cavity with one horizontal and one vertical line that intersect at the patient’s umbilicus (navel). Figure 1.16- Regions and Quadrants of the Peritoneal Cavity Section 184.108.40.206- Abdominal Regions and Quadrants Serous membranes -Encase heart, lungs, stomach, and intestines Double layered 1) Visceral- attached to surface of organ 2) Parietal- superficial to visceral, lines the wall of the body cavity Between the layers is serous fluid, a lubricant that reduces friction and abrasion Pericardium- serous membrane that surrounds the heart Pleura- serous membrane that surrounds the lung Peritoneum- serous membrane that surround the digestive organs Anatomical terms are useful in naming: Bones Muscles Parts of the brain Nerves
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