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Colombia Notes

by: Amaris Mae

Colombia Notes PSC 2484

Amaris Mae
GPA 3.75
Latin American Policy
Cynthia McClintock

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About this Document

These are the notes from 3/17/2015. A guest lecturer came to speak about Colombia. Lecture notes are in black and text notes are in blue.
Latin American Policy
Cynthia McClintock
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amaris Mae on Tuesday March 24, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSC 2484 at George Washington University taught by Cynthia McClintock in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 90 views. For similar materials see Latin American Policy in International Studies at George Washington University.

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Date Created: 03/24/15
Cmombm FARC Finally ghting back NARCO trading is the most effective for them Best way to buy military Guerilla warfare weapons Santos Patched up relations with Venezuela Peace negotiation Had said no one would do this Not promised in the campaign Began in 2012 in Havana Both sides have respected the peace and silence on the matter Norway and Cuba are mediators Santos was narrowly reelected in June of last year TimeLine February 2012 preliminary dialogues start in Cuba October 2012 Formal talk begin May 2013 accord on land and rural development November 2013 accord on political participation May 2014 accord on illicit drugs December 2014 March 2015 FARC cease re landmine accord bombing held Focusing on escalation FARC said it would enter a unilateral cease re Mostly kept to that Cease re does not mean cessation of all activities Shops are still being exploited Child soldiers Landmines may still be laid Now the government of Colombia wants to hold elections Land and Rural Development Recognizing land holding Giving titles Restoring it to those who have lost the land to the FARC Politics Smaller political movements would be able to run candidates more easily More access to the media People from the left quotwho have a history of getting killed in Colombiaquot may survive a political campaign Special congressional zones Areas of the countries that were most hit by the con ict will be named and will get a seat in congress gtFARC expects that their candidates will win in those areas Just for the rst few congresses Problem of lllicit Drugs Eradication of the coco plant Can force manual eradication 70 eradicators have been killed since 2008 FARC did not get a ban on herbicide Victims What to do for the victims of the con ict Most dif cult part of the agenda Worst human rights abusers in the military and in the guerillas In the Way of the Accord Proper recognition of responsibility to victims De nition of quotdisarmamentquot quotNo vamos empagarquot don39t want to look like they are surrendering Want to quotdejarquot to leave abandon Transicional justica formula FARC demand for a constitutional convention Opposition form the right No one has ever left membership in an illegal group to go to a prison cell not in a peace process negotiation However Colombia is the rst government going through a peace process that is a part of the ICC apologized for the massacre in 2002 but they have a long way to go Opposition from the right The political right in Colombia doesn39t want a negotiated peace Includes one of the most important political gures there Alvaro Uribe Strongly opposes talks Appeals directly to the military Biggest and loudest voice in Colombia s media Extreme hard line on drugs President from 20022010 Military Hard to want to talk about how to descale Small committee was formed to talk about the feasibility of de escalation Two military concerns 1 Soldiers accused of rights abuses serving more prison time than guerrillas 2 Post con ict cuts to the armed forces Rebel leaders Clan Usuga ELN Have had talks with the Colombian government Cannot agree for even a framework for talks Will be on the outside 2000 guys who can soak up FARC who weren39t that into demobilizing ELN wants to add issues of oil and mining Not to go to foreign investors So it could be that the military will not shrink after an accord with the FARC to ght the ELN Or the ELN could start absorbing disinfecting former FARC and take over traf cking corridors But not chance of taking over power Internal Veri cation Truth commission Relocation of ex ghters Integration Hybrid panel on human rights abuses Need international help for all these issues OAS has the best capacity around the country UN has the most experience UNASUR Because it doesn39t have the great powers quotbossy powersquot Donor Coordination Colombia doesn39t get a lot of international donations US gives 350 million a year Because Colombia is a middle income country Not poor like subSaharan Africa Colombia has little technical capacity Health system suffers International Donors would also have to aid with sending people to help create infrastructure throughout the country and ll the administrative posts as well Lack of employees for such posts is a major issue in providing services Commitments made and not followed through on USAID contributed money that was wasted You also need political will Demobilization Has worked more effectively on an individual basis Great program Problem miss the collective demobilization You have a he jump in the amount of people who have committed crimes reentering society And in a collective demobilization may not want to leave Will rejoin armed groups Only 4 nd formal employment ACR is active in areas where the FARC is not present Most will not go to jail Except those in a command position Except those who were acting on their own and pursued extremely violent actions genocide All go to trial 0 Will they go to jail o What will that jail look like 0 The lecturer says they will have several centers that are stark but still not prisons Have houses and can receive visitors and have access to the internet and organize political movement and only there for 58 years US Obama supports peace accord But vague statements Once said that they would aid with postcon ict support However even this has changed Rubio is against the peace talks As well as a congresswoman from Florida USAID has started thinking about how to change support in postcon ict US military Senior diplomat from State is talking about Colombia Being supportive Explaingin the peace process Picking up Where They Left Off Colombia s War Peace talks between Colombia s government and the FARC in 2002 Ended with a kidnaping Guerrillas hijacked a commercial ight forced it to land on a remote island and took captive Jorge Eduardo Gechem Spent 6 years as a hostage The President of the time Andres Pastrami declared the peace talks to be over Another abduction on November 16th of Ruben Darla Alzate a Colombian general The FARC sees of cers as its most prized prisoners Santos suspended negotiations But after a fortnight the general and his tow companions were released Mr Santos promptly sent negotiators to Haven And restarted talks there on December 10th with tuba and Norway who are helping to resolve the issue Both sides have a lot of stake in the peace process Santos wants to end the con ict which has killed some 220 00 people Most voters warily back him Guerrillas need peace even more lnhospitable jungle and mountain terrain They cannot overthrow Colombia s democracy and freemarket economy The FARC has tactic accepted this Both sides agreed that acts of war would not affect how talks FARC accused Santos of breakin this understanding by suspending them after the kidnapping But he had little choice Genial Alsace has already resigned for breaching security by travelling into a dangerous area FARC calls for a bilateral cease re The right party in Colombia call for the cease re of only the FARC The FARC has used previous cease res to regroup and rearm quotKeeping up military pressure is the most effective way to end this absurd warquot Escalation might help February 2015 was the goal date for the agreement Settlement was to coincide with the elections in October The swift resolution to the kidnapping crisis suggests that each want to How Can the US Help Colombia Achieve Peace Farce Revolution Armed Forces of Colombia 50 year con ict Coming to a close 36 chapters have been agreed upon Rural development Political participation Drug policy Cuba and Norway are acting as quotguaranteesquot of the peace process Venezuela and Chile playing supportive rues US can play a role in supporting the negotiators 220000 people have been killed 81 were civilians 6 million have been displaced Call for the US to vocay support the peace process Encourage the incorporation of victim39s perspectives in to the nal accords Victims of all armed actors Farce ELN and military Women afroCoIombians and ingenious peope roam people and victims of targeting by the Union Patriotic political party and the LGBT community Join committee to remove land miens Protection for human rights defenders and peace activist Encourage negotiations to move forward with the ELN Colombia remaining signi cant guerrilla force And if possible the ELP US should implement substantive mutiyear resources US should encourage other international donors Monitor peace accord implementation And support the of cial veri cation mechanism that emerges from the accords Calls for the us to urge the Colombia government to dismantle the paramilitary successor groups and the to invest ageprosecute members the armed forced and police Search for the disappeared Coective reparations Demobilization and reintegration s of excombatants Demining Rural development Urban peace building


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