POS 160 Week 1 Notes
POS 160 Week 1 Notes POS160
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexandra Notetaker on Thursday August 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to POS160 at Arizona State University taught by Dr. Reed M. Wood in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 83 views. For similar materials see Global Politics in Political Science at Arizona State University.
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Date Created: 08/18/16
POS 160: ORIGINS OF THE CONTEMPORARY INTERNATIONAL SYSTEM StatesvsNations Nation:group ofpeopleunitedbycommon descent,historyculture,language. State:Politicalentitywithauthoritytogovern itsownterritoriesandpopulations. States&Sovereignty Sovereign nation-statesmakeup the modern statesystem. Nation-state:politicalunitreferring towhen statesandnationsoverlapmajorly. Sovereignty:stateswhichhaveultimate legalandpoliticalauthoritywithintheir boundaries. Note:Sovereigntyisan organizing principle-NOTALAW Modern State System-approx.200states Sovereigntyisnow normal,however,itisrecent Static 1648:ANew World Before 1700-empires,city-states,andtribalterritories Early18 century-states 19 century-nation-state(nationalism) ThirtyYearsWar(1618-1648) Western Europe (mainlyGermany) Why:Whohadauthority? Religion:CatholicvsProtestant CatholicChurch+Hapsburg EmpirevsGerman Princes+other powers(Fr.Dk.Swe.) WarEnds1648 TreatyofWestphalia German Princes+otherpowers(Fr.Dk.Swe.)Won Repercussions: Churchweakened Hapsburgsdismantled Organizing principlesovereign states European Colonialism 1500beginsin Americas(Spanish& Portuguese) andSEAsia&Africa(Dutch) 1700FrenchandBritishinAfrica&SE Asia Colonialism Economic Pop.Expansion Industrialism Tradeexpansion Increasing demand Security-ColonialRivalry “Wealth isPower,andpoweriswealth”ThomasHobbes Importance:directlycontributestoWWI Taking over indigenousland Competition for powerin Europe WorldWarI Impact:Destruction in Empires RealignmentofEurope WorldWar2 Extension ofWWI Germanyeconomicallycrippled Lossofcoloniesruinedeconomy Japan likeGermanyin WWI League ofNationsisweak The BigShort GermanyannexCzech1938 GermanyinvadesPoland UK& FRWaron Germany1939 GermanyinvadesRussiaWar1941 Japan extendsin China1937 Japan in SE Asia1941 Japan attacksPearlHarbor1941 USWaron Japan& Germany1941 Outcome: MassiveDeath US& USSRmajorworldpowers ColdWar1945-1990 Nuclearweapons UN,Bretton Woods,GATT/NATO Sovereigntystrengthened POS 160 A RATIONALIST FRAMEWORK RationalistApproach Doesnotman itisa“good”decision Assumeactionsarestrategic Make choicesthat theybelievewillhelpachieve theirgoal StrategicChoices Dependenton: Expectedactionsofothers Rules& institutions Costsv.benefits Information theyposses Combination ofstrategiesrepresentan interaction,whichproducesan observable result. Interests,Interactions,& Institutions Relevantactors: States Firms Non-state political(i.e.terrorists) Interests: Security Sovereignty Expandeconomy Expandpoliticalinfluence Interactions: The wayinwhichthechoicesof2or moreactorsproduce politicaloutcome Strategicinteractions: Dependon anticipatedstrategyofothers Actorshave to: Anticipate others’choices Choose beneficialresponse BestResponseStrategy Adopt strategiestomaximizegains Strategy:courseofaction intendedtorealize thegoal Whyarethereerrors? Limitedinfo Cognitive bias Culturalbarriers ***Doesn’tmean thechoice wasn’trational Cooperation &Bargaining Cooperation:when 2or moreactorsadopt policiesthatmakeatleast1other actor betteroff than itwouldbe otherwise. i.e.fighting terror reduce greenhousegasses building roads/bridges freetrade The ParetoFrontier Mutualpolicyadjustmentsthat movestowardthePareto Frontier Increasegainsofsome orallwithoutdiminishing other’sgains. Bargaining:interaction inwhichactorsmustchooseoutcomesthat makeone betteroffatthe expenseofanother Moving along theParetoFrontier GainstoArepresentcoststoB Zero-sum Purelyredistributed—allocatedfoxedsum ***Successfulcooperationgeneratesgainsworthbargaining over. Cooperation Problems Publicgood:non-excludable,butdesirable products(i.e.clean air) Selective good:excludablegood Effortstoproduce publicgoodsarehinderedby Collective Action Problem,whichisthat each individualasan incentive tofreeride. Free Ride:let othersdothework,butstillbenefit. Institutions Institutions:known or setrulesthat govern acommunity Formallaws Formalinstitutions Norms Can shapeactorsbehavior: Clarifyrules Setstandards Impose costs/sanctions Share info. Facilitate andlowercostsofinteraction
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