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Practice Upload

by: Amia Notetaker

Practice Upload

Amia Notetaker


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Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amia Notetaker on Thursday August 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to at University of Nevada - Las Vegas taught by in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views.


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Date Created: 08/18/16
Prokaryotes Microorganisms and Microbes  Bacteria  Archaea  Protists Virus  “latin” for slimy liquid, poison  extremely small, non-cellular, completely dependent on host for replication  all contain nucleic acids and proteins o some may have “envelope” stolen from host membranes o Nucleic acids = genome o Primary function of capsid = protect the genome  Obligate intracellular parasite o Three common functions  Replication of viral genome  Packaging of viral genome into virions  Alter structure/ function of cell Virus Background  too small to see under optical microscope  found in every ecosystem on earth  infect all living organisms Hosts  requires a cell that it can enter AND replicate in  Depending on virus, host range can be narrow or wide Reassortment/Recombination of Viruses  Two unique strains infect the same cell o Swap genetic material o Can result in dangerous variations o Ex. Influenza o Can result in ability to infect a host species that they previously could not access Treating/Preventing viral infection  Antibiotics DO NOT work on viral infections  Anti-virals can be used to treat some viral infections  Vaccines can be used to protect individuals from viral infection  Using viruses to target cancers o Can reengineer viruses to target cancer cells  Remove portions of the virus blueprint  Substitute in different genes  Require virus to need cancer cell environment to replicate Bacteria  Single-celled prokaryotic organism  Can be found in every environment on earth  No nucleus  Only organelles: ribosomes  Reproduce asexually o Binary fission  Can have different types of morphology Cell Structure  Cytoplasm  Ribosomes  Circular chromosome  Plasma membrane  Cell wall  Capsule  Pili and/or flagella Cell Wall  Made of carbohydrate called peptidoglycan  Bacteria can be classified based on cell wall contents o Gram positive (thick wall) vs Gram negative (thin wall)  Some antibiotics target the cell wall by inhibiting its maintenance Flagella and Pili  Flagellum: rigid, propeller-like protein tail (movement) o Powered by flow of ions across a membrane  Pilus: hair-like extracellular appendage on surface o Used to transfer genetic material between bacteria Spore Formation  Under unfavorable conditions, some bacteria enter a dormant state known as spore  When conditions improve, the spores can grow back into bacteria  Amazingly resistant, survive without any water or nutrients, cannot be killed by low temperatures or poisonous chemicals  Spores as old as 250 million years old have been brought back to life Bacterial growth: 4 main phases  Lag phase: adapting to new environment, grow slowly  Log Phase: adapted to new environment, grow exponentially  Stationary phase: resources depleting, # of cell divisions = # cell deaths  Death phase: resources completely depleted, population is dying Transformation  The ability to uptake exogenous genetic material and incorporate it as plasmids – transformation  Bacteria can only do so under certain conditions – competence  Competence is induced under stress, DNA damaging conditions Transduction  Process by which genetic material can be transferred from one bacteria to another via a virus Conjugation  Direct exchange of genetic material  The genetic material is exchanged via the pili  The genetic material exchanged usually consists of plasmids  Conjugation is regarded as similar to mating but not quite the same Interactions with other organism  Bacteria form complex associations with other organism – mutualistic, commensalistic and parasitic  Mutualistic or symbiotic interactions occur when both the bacteria and the host benefit from the interaction  Mitochondria and gut flora are examples of symbiotic relationships Gut flora  The gut (small and large intestine) of many animals is inhabited by many species of bacteria  Gut flora are extremely useful in breaking down undigested carbohydrates, synthesizing vitamins B and K, metabolizing bile acids and sterols, and many other vital biological functions Commensalistic Relationships  One organism benefits and the other neither benefits nor suffers  While some gut flora are symbiotic, others are commensalistic Parasitic relationships  One organism benefits but the other is harmed  Parasitic bacteria are pathogenic – pneumonia, tetanus, cholera  Pathogenic bacteria are harmful because they either reproduce uncontrollably inside human cells Antibiotics  Medications that destroy or inhibit the growth of bacteria  Many destroy the peptidoglycan cell wall or cell membrane, or interfere with bacterial protein synthesis and enzyme function Uses of bacteria  Agriculture – yogurt and cheese production  Environmental – oil spill cleanups  Industrial – production of pure chemicals for pharmaceuticals  Scienctific – biotechnology Archaea  Extremophiles – they inhabit extreme environment  Classified separately from bacteria  Metabolic pathways of archaea are more similar to those of eukaryotes  It is thus thought that eukaryotes and archaea evolved from a common ancestor, and that bacteria are more distant


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