HI 4673 Lecture 1 notes
HI 4673 Lecture 1 notes HI 4673
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cheyenne S. on Thursday August 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HI 4673 at Mississippi State University taught by Davide Orsini in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views.
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Date Created: 08/18/16
HI 4673 Lecture 1 The Enlightenment I. What is the Enlightenment? A. Viewed as a phenomenon B. Widespread transformation that affected a number of mediums 1. Universities 2. Knowledge C. Uneven development of various thoughts; resulted in varied opinions 1. Rousseau, controversial philosopher a) Emotions over rationality b) Corruption of man in society; brought on loss of purity II. The start of the Enlightenment A. Many ideals already in place due to the Scientific Revolution B. Scientists—natural philosophers C. Took over Europe in official “societies” D. Newton, popular scientist during movement 1. Formulated the laws of nature (justnaturalism) 2. Spurred on discussion of applying methods used to discover universe to find the answers of mankind E. Use of knowledge, emancipation, authority 1. David Hume a) Studied human beings as if it was a scientific study 2. John Locke a) The human mind is a “tabula rasa” or clean slate b) All knowledge gained is from experience c) Inalienable rights are natural rights that cannot be taken away (1) Life, liberty, property d) Social contract between citizens and their ruler (1) Individual free people gave authority to the supreme ruler (2) If ruler unjust, people gain the right to revolt III.What is Enlightenment? A. “Reason to a philosopher is what grace is to a Christian” B. Philosophers develop principles based on infinite observations, spreading their ideas to the public by written word C. The Public Sphere: dividing zone of the individual and the state 1. Limited to elite members of society a) Met in salons and discussed philosophical ideals b) Popular contributors to the Enlightenment D. Voltaire 1. “Candide” 2. extremely critical of the society he was living in, specifically concerning religion a) viewed religion as a social phenomenon binding society E. Montesquieu 1. “Letters Persanes” a) critique of French society 2. “L’Esprit des Lois” a) focused on constitutionalism, balance and separation of power F. Diderot 1. “Encyclopedie” a) encyclopedia for the arts and science; popular project b) caused tension with religious leaders G. Rousseau 1. “The Social Contract” a) focuses on republicanism, direct democracy
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