Introduction to Statistics
Introduction to Statistics MAT 120
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Andrew Isbell on Thursday August 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to MAT 120 at Tri-County Technical College taught by Merle Glick in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Probability and Statistics in Mathmatics at Tri-County Technical College.
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Date Created: 08/18/16
Intro to the Practice of Statistics Andrew Isbell -Statistics- science of collecting, organizing, summarizing and analyzing information to help measure confidence in a claim or make a follow able conclusion. -Statistical thinking- thought processes using stats as a basis for fact/idea creating meant to be less unbiased than other methods. -Data- information used in statistics that may or may not be numerical -Even with a single case (example: one person), data may vary and more often than not, does -Population- the group being studied (Example: what students a school A do activity B?) -Sample-a subset of the population used when the population is too large to be reasonably studied on an individual level (some of the population). -Descriptive statistics- the ways used to organize and show statistical data, for example, tables/graphs and etcetera. -Inferential statistics- using stats taken from a sample to conclude something about the population. -Samples are to Statistics what Parameters are to the Population -Steps for statistical data making: 1.) Identify an objective/task and/or create a question 2.) Collect the data 3.) Describe the sample (stat) using graphs, charts or any other method which is appropriate. This will be exact. 4.) Perform an inference (parameter) by taking the data and extending it to the population. This will be an estimate based off fact. -Treatment group-a group with a change applied -Control group- a group without the change applied -By comparing and contrasting the treatment group and the control group, accurate conclusions may be made. Types of Variables: -Variables- characteristics of individuals within the population -Qualitative- allow for classification of individuals based off some attribute or characteristic (also called Categorical Variable). -Quantitative- numerical values of individuals (Example: height of a group in a stat). Qual. Or Quan.? a. Nationality- Qualitative b. Number of children – Quantitative c. Education- Qualitative d. Income- Quantitative e. Intake of whole grains/ day – Quantitative -If we have a Quantitative variable, it may be either discrete of continuous Discrete- Finite Continuous- Infinite/ multiple levels of accuracy possible Levels of variable measurement: -Nominal- No specific order needed to show data (ex: gender) -Ordinal-Can be shown in order without consequence (ex: letter grade) -Interval- Difference in values means something and zero has no inherent value (ex: Temperature) -Ratio- Zero has inherent value (ex: number of hours studied)
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