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Anatomy and Physiology I, Week 2 reading notes

by: Britney Beckett

Anatomy and Physiology I, Week 2 reading notes 2200

Marketplace > University of Georgia > 2200 > Anatomy and Physiology I Week 2 reading notes
Britney Beckett
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Notes for Chapter 2 (pg. 66-80) from OpenStax textbook. These notes cover the important information about organic molecules.
Anatomy and Physiology I
Ann Massey
Class Notes
anatomy, Physiology




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Britney Beckett on Friday August 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 2200 at University of Georgia taught by Ann Massey in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 76 views.


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Date Created: 08/19/16
Chemistry review reading notes (pg.66-80) Organic compounds:  Found in all living things  Composed for hydrocarbons (bond of Hydrogen and Carbon atoms) o Carbohydrates o Lipids o Proteins o Nucleotides Chemistry of Carbon:  Carbon had 4 electrons  Readily shares electrons (covalent bonding)  Often carbons bond together forming carbon chain  Functional groups are a group of atoms that are bonded through strong covalent bonds. Function as chemical reactants as one unit. o OH (hydroxyl) o COOH (carboxyl)  Stable organic molecules often form large, complex molecules known as macromolecules.  Some macromolecules are made of monomers: Single unit of molecule. o i.e. C2H 2  Monomers linked by covalent bonds are known as polymers. o i.e. C2H 2C 2 2C 2 2 o Monomers undergo dehydration synthesis (release of water molecules) to become polymers o Polymers to monomers is the reverse reaction (hydrolysis) Carbohydrates:  Most Carbohydrates are consumed from grains, vegetables, fruits, and legumes.  These carbs contain glucose that is used by the body in cellular respiration to make ATP (Adenosine triphosphate): *See Nucleotide section  Carbohydrate= carbon, hydrogen and oxygen atoms  General carbohydrate formula = (CH2O)n o n is the factor the general formula is multiplied by to get the molecular formula.  Carbohydrates are called saccharides (“sugars”) o Monosaccharaides=one sugar molecule (monomer) o Disaccharides= two monomers o Polysaccharides= many monomers (polymer)  Important monosaccharaides for the body o Glucose o Fructose o Galactose o Deoxyribose o Ribose  Important disaccharides for the body o Sucrose (table sugar) = glucose + fructose o Lactose (milk sugar)= galactose + glucose o Maltose (malt sugar)= 2 glucose *body can not use disaccharides directly so it breaks down disaccharides into monosaccharaides through dehydration synthesis.  Important polysaccharides o Starches  Found in plant best founds.  Polymer of glucose o Glycogen  Polymer of glucose  Found in animal tissue  Forms in a branch structure o Cellulose  Found in plant cell walls  Not digestible by humans  Referred to as fiber  Carbohydrates can also bind with other organic molecules to make cell structures such as cell membranes. o Carbohydrate + protein= glycoprotein o Carbohydrate+ lipid= glycolipids Lipids:  Highly diverse  Mostly hydrocarbons  Nonpolar and hydrophobic  Monoglycerides (one fatty acid chain  Diglycerides (two fatty acid chains)  Triglycerides (3 fatty acid chains) o Most common dietary lipid o Fuels long, slow, and vigorous physical activities o Found in body tissues o Common known as fat o Composed of glycerol backbone and 3 fatty acid chains o Formed through dehydration synthesis  Saturated fats o Contain max number of possible hydrogen bonds o Straight chain o No double bonds between carbons o Solid at room temperature  Example: butter  Unsaturated fats o Does not contain max number of hydrogen bonds o Double bonds between carbons o Liquid at room temperature  oils o Curved chain  Phospholipids: o Composed of glycerol, 2 fatty acid chains, and phosphate group o Polar “head”/ hydrophilic head (glycerol + phosphate group) o Nonpolar tail/ hydrophobic tail (glycerol + 2 fatty acid chains)  Steroids: o Structure: hydrocarbon ring o Used to make cholesterol in body o Used to make many hormones o Found in cell membrane o Prostaglandins:  Signal molecule (like hormones)  Unsaturated fat  Regulates blood pressure and inflammation  Sensitizes nerves to pain Protein:  Composed of amino acids linked by peptide bonds  Critical component of all tissues and organs  Component of body chemicals such as antibodies and enzymes  All contain nitrogen and some contain sulfur  Amino acid o amino functional group(NH2) + carboxyl group (COOH) + hydrogen atom + side chain all attached to central carbon atom o 20 amino acids different amino acids combine in varies sequences to make the proteins need for the body o Make great buffers o very short chain of amino acids=peptide o <100 amino acids= polypeptide o >100 amino acids=protein  Protein shape is determined by sequence of amino acids o Primary structure= amino acid sequence o Secondary structure= folds within amino acid sequence  Alpha helix  Beta pleated sheet o Tertiary structure- shape of a protein o Quaternary structure- interaction between proteins.  Heat, acids, bases, can denature (change in structure that causes inactivity) proteins  Substrate is the specific reactant for a specific enzyme. Substrate binds at active sites of enzyme  Human body only functions because enzymes function  Using protein for energy causes tissue break down because protein is stores in functional tissue Nucleotides:  Composed of one or more phosphate groups, deoxyribose or ribose, and a nitrogenous base (adenine, cytosine, guanine, thymine, uracil) o Deoxyribose= DNA  Stores genetic information  Nitrogenous bases= A, C, G, T  Purines: double ring structures (adenine and guanine)  Pyrimidine: single ring structures (cytosine, thymine) o Ribose=RNA  Help turn DNA into protein  Nitrogenous bases= A,C,G,U  Purines: adenine and guanine  Pyrimidine: cytosine, thymine, uracil o ATP  Nucleotide composed of a ribose sugar, adenine base and 3 phosphate groups  ATP Releases free energy to be used by the body when terminal phosphate bond is broken


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