Week 2 Cultural Food and Nutrition Notes
Week 2 Cultural Food and Nutrition Notes FNDS 4630
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bailey Dickinson on Friday August 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to FNDS 4630 at University of Georgia taught by Hea Park in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views.
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Date Created: 08/19/16
Notes f or FDNS 4630 CRN15786 (Week 2 8/15 -8/19 ) Monday: • The purpose of showing data in today’s class is that she wants us to recognize that we actually see a lot of different people around here. • This course is a 4000 level because now, we have enough experience of seeing people who are different from us. • Many people experience cultural shock when they go to college. • We went to the census.gov website. The U.S. population is 324 million There is one birth every 7 seconds. We lose one person every 13 seconds. One international migrant arrives every 29 seconds. So, overall, there is a net gain of one person every 29 seconds. • The US population increases over time • The world population is 7.3 billion. rd • The USA is the 3 largest country in terms of population. #1: China #2: India Growth between 2000 and 2010 • 27.3 million people (9.7%) However, the change is not always the same…Changing Demographics • Population is more fragmented than a generation ago • Mix of ethnic origins is shifting • Indigenous population growth has stopped (the graph of the population of people who are born here in the states is more flat than increasing) • High immigration rates • Higher birth rate among non-majority ethnics groups (immigrants are having more babies than the indigenous population) • Population getting older All of the changing demographics affect culture US Population in 2013 • 62% White (not Hispanic) • 17% Hispanic/Latino • 13% African American • 5% Asian/Pacific Islander In 1960, the percent of foreign population in the US increased More foreign-born people will contribute to US growth than the native born population. There was a change in foreign-born population by region of birth. In 1960, 75% of foreign immigrants were from Europe. Inn 2010, only 12% are from Europe and most (53%) are from Latin America. The non-Hispanic white population is projected to peak in 2024. Its population is projected to slowly decrease. The Hispanic population would be more than double, from 53.3 million in 2012 to 128.8 million in 2016. It will be 30% by 2060. The black population is expected to increase over time. It will be 15% by 2060. The Asian population is expected to more than double by 2060. The U.S. is projected to become a majority-minority nation for the first time in 2043. While the non-Hispanic white population will remain in the largest single group, no group will make up a majority. Minorities, now 37% of the U.S. population, are projected to comprise 57% of the population in 2060. 4 Major Racial/Ethnic Minorities (37% of US Population) Native American (American Indians/Alaskan Natives) • 4 largest minority group- 1.2% of total pop • Origins in the original peoples of America that maintain a tribal affiliation or community attachment Asian/Pacific Islanders • Asians- Origins in any people of the Far East, SE Asia, or Indian subcontinent • Trd largest groups among Asians- Chinese, then Filipino • 3 largest minority group (5.3%) African American (Black) • Origins in any of the black racial groups in Africa (African Americans, Africans, Same origin from Caribbean) nd • 2 largest minority group (13.1%) Hispanics • Viewed as heritage, nationality, lineage, or country of birth • Largest minority group (16.9%) • Mexicans (60% of Hispanics), next largest is Puerto Ricans • Top 10 states by Hispanic population, 2011 (California 37.7% of total population), then Texas Most minorities live in the south of the U.S. (close to the borders) Immigrants may ways to live close to their origins. It’s more comfortable. 60% of U.S. immigrants live in either California, Florida, Texas, New York, or New Jersey. HOWEVER Five other states have seen the fastest growth since 2000: Kentucky, South Carolina, Mississippi, Wisconsin, and North Carolina BECAUSE these 5 states are cheaper to live in Georgia: 2011: 944,641 immigrants 9.6% state pop 2000-2011 increase 63.3% 6 state in growth We see a lot less Hispanics in GA and a lot more African Americans. The US Majority Population • White-origins in people of Europe, Middle East, or North Africa • 64-78% pop-varies with data subset • Most Americans trace their ancestry to Europe alone. Eastern European immigration rates rose between 1990 and 2010 because their nations used to be communist, but now they can come. All other European immigration decreased during this time. American Culture: describes the culture shared by the dominant white-Anglo- Saxon Protestant population Tuesday: Culture • Values, beliefs, attitudes, and practices accepted by members of a group or community. (Not individual) • Culture can even be established in our classroom. There is a culture of UGA students. - Learned, not inherited - Changes over time Cultural Effects on Food Consumption • What, when, where, how much is eaten In china, if you are hosted by a family, you must leave some food on your plate to show that you’ve been treated well. • How it is obtained • How it is prepared • How it is distributed • How it is consumed A lot of Indians eat with their hands. Touch is an important sense to use when you eat. It tastes better. Dietary changes occur with length and location of residence. Acculturation • Process by which an ethnic group moves into another new majority society and begins to adopt the new society’s cultural values and habits -Adopt some values while maintaining old ties of friendship and family -To measure acculturation, observe language adoption, social networks, and information sources An individual becomes “bicultural” when the new culture is seen as a complement to the original culture of origin Language is a culture too. If you speak Korean and then learn English because you move to USA, you are acculturating. Acculturation of food habits • Often the last practice changed through acculturation (hard to change) • Lack of available native ingredients • Convenience • Cost • Unpopular traditional foods often first to go • Food most associated with ethnic identity are the most resistant to acculturation The last thing to change is what people eat at home On-going immigration and acculturation effects on diet • Immigrant groups adopt traditional American fare Assimilation Theory • To become similar to the majority population • The once new culture becomes yours eventually; acculturation is the process • Process by which people form one cultural group shed their ethnic identity and fully merge into the majority culture • Assumes no contact with culture of origin Transnational Theory • Recognizes that immigrants continue to have strong ties with their country of origin • Ex. Transnational suburb: a suburb made up mostly of immigrants who maintain strong ties to their home countries (like Chinatown) • Some people even have houses in both countries and vote in their home countries. US is more stir-fry than a melting pot. If everyone assimilated, America would be a melting pot. In a stir fry, you can taste each ingredient. In a melting pot, it’s all the same. Contemporary food habits depend on Stage of Acculturation Stage 1: Traditional, Limited Acculturation • Parents/grandparents speak native language • Practices traditional religion • Participates in ethnic cultural activities and feasts Stage 2: Increased Acculturation • English is primary language • Religion of majority population is preferred • Involved in activities of major society Stage 3: Pan-traditional • Speaks English and Native language • Religion is a combination of traditional and Christian beliefs • Actively involved in both activities from both ethnic and majority groups (Native Americans) The five levels of acculturation: traditional, marginal, bicultural, assimilated, and pantraditional Pan-traditional people are those who make a conscious choice to return to their traditional way of living, and seek to embrace previously lost traditional cultural values and beliefs. On-going immigration and acculturation effects on diet • Majority population adopts ethnic foods as own Ethnic food sales (2010) Increase over time • 1 in 7 food $ • 75% purchased by mainstream consumers (majority group, not immigrants) • 30% of Americans looking for new and unusual flavors • Often Americanized (want familiar foods with foreign intrigue Value systems are culturally based American Values Compared to Values Held by Others • Person control over environment vs. Fate • Change/Mobility/Independence vs Tradition • Time and its control vs Human interaction • Equality vs Hierarchy/Rank/Status • Individualism and privacy vs Group’s welfare • Self-help vs Birthright Inheritance • Competition vs Cooperation • Future orientation/Optimism vs Past orientation • Action/Work orientation vs “being” orientation • Informality vs Formality • Directness/Openness/Honesty vs Indirectness/Ritual/Face • Practicality/Efficiency vs Idealism • Materialism/Acquisitiveness vs Spiritualism/Detachment Wednesday: Food: any substance that provides the nutrients necessary to maintain life and growth when ingested. -Raise crops and livestock, leading to consistent supply of similar foods. People would like to have similar, safe food supply over time -Use these foods in cooking and other culturally specific ways (ex. Meals, rules on utensils, manners, sharing of food) Foodways: standardized food practices of people who compose a society -Refers to the population in general -Determined by availability and acceptability -Helps to maintain identity and viability of the group Constantly changing within a cultural framework Cultural framework: values, attitudes and belief. Culture is the values beliefs attitudes and practices accepted by a group of community. Foodways: How food is: • Selected • Obtained • Distributed • Who prepares food • Who serves food • Who eats food (and who you eat with) The Omnivore’s Paradox Humans are omnivores • Consume/digest wide selection of plants and animals • Adapt easily almost all earthly environments • No single food provides all nutrition for survival • Must be flexible yet cautious to avoid harmful foods Dilemma: Need to experiment yet be cautious Diverse food consumption is good because you need all nutrients. The dilemma is that you need to be cautious when experimenting with new foods. Paradox: • Attraction to new foods • Preference to familiar foods Conservative approach We conserve food choices within a culture In most societies, Plant and animal foods are important Diet has become more diversified with time Historically, indigenous foods determined what was consumed -Determined by environment -Determined by what non-indigenous foods can be introduced Stage of technological development determines what is available Hunter/gatherer: depends on local environment Farmers/Gardeners: producing foods, trade, processing Marketplace: production + processing/storage + transportation Vavilov’s Eight centers of crop origin A Vavilov Center is a region of the world to be an original center for the domestication of plants New World crops- items domesticated in the Americas. Most important: corn Far Eastern crops- Most important: rice Near Eastern crops- lentils, olives, barley, almonds, figs…etc Still, these food ways affect your own food culture and food behavior Major domesticated animals: The basic set: • Cattle • Hogs • Sheep • Goats Animals domesticated not all for food. Some for religious reasons, transportation, hunting aids, etc. Understanding the role of food in a culture • Frequency of food consumption -Core and complementary food model • Ways food are traditionally prepared and seasoned -Flavor Principle • Daily, weekly and yearly use of foods -Meal patterns and meal cycles • Food preparation methods chosen Classification of foods within foodways of a given society/cultural group Frequency of consumption Core food: regularly consumed on a daily basis, typically complex carbohydrates (cheap and more primary thing needed to survive) Complementary food compliments the core food (beans go with rice) Secondary foods: widely consumes but less frequently Peripheral foods: eaten sporadically, individual preference Role of specific foods in diet: Protective foods • Rich in nutrients and calories • Provide ethnic identity Status foods • Rare and expensive • Not part of daily diet, special occasions • Varies within subgroups in society