Geo - 101 Notes Week 1
Geo - 101 Notes Week 1 GEO 101
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by godfreytorrance on Friday August 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEO 101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Prof. Yong Zhang in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see Intro Geology in Geology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 08/19/16
Geo 101|8/1719 What is the Structure of the Universe? The geocentric model of the universe placed the Earth at the center of the Universe. The Heliocentric model placed the sun at the center. Terrestrial Planets – planets made of rocks. Earth is a terrestrial planet. The Big Bang Theory 13.8 Billion years ago. Start of the universe. Explosion that started our universe. What is the universe expanding into? It depends on whether or not there are edges. If we live in an infinite universe, then the universe expands into “nothing.” If the universe is finite, then eventually it will reach a boundary, and therefore the universe is expanding into “something” o The first atoms of the universe developed within minutes of the Big Bang. o The atoms formed vast gas clouds known as Nebulae. Gravity caused clumps of gas in the nebulae to coalesce into flattened disks with bulbous centers. The center of each disk became so dense and hot that fusion reactions and they became true stars. Formation of the moon The moon was formed from a collision between the Earth and a protoplanet. The time of collision was 4.527 billion years ago. Earth is only 4.540 billion years old. The moon is younger than the Earth. .013 billion years younger that is. Why are Planets/Stars Round? It becomes round when gravity smooths out irregularities. The Earth Atmosphere – Earth’s Gaseous envelope Hydroshpere – Earth’s surface and near surface water Biosphere – Earth’s great variety of life forms Lithosphere – The outer shell of the Earth Interior – Material inside the Earth Magnetic Field Solar Wind – A stream of Plasma released from the upper atmosphere of the Sun. It consists mostly of Electrons and Protons. Cosmic Rays – They are immensely high – energy radiation mainly originating outside the solar system. Earth’s magnetic field protects us from these. Atmosphere Air pressure decreases with increasing elevation. 99% of atmospheric gas lies at elevations below 50km. There are 4 layers. We live in the Troposphere. Layers: 1. Troposphere 2. Stratosphere 3. Mesosphere 4. Thermosphere. Land and Oceans The deepest point on the ocean floor is 10.9 KM below sea level and the highest point on land is 8.9km above. The total difference in elevation (19.8 km) is only .3% of Earth’s radius (6.371 km). The Earth’s surface can be divided into land (30%) and oceans (70%) What is the Earth Made of? Earth materials include organic chemicals, minerals, glasses, rocks, metals, melts, and volatiles. Organic Chemicals – Carboncontaining compound that either occur in living organisms or have characteristics that resemble compounds in living organisms. Minerals – A solid natural substance where atons are arranged in an orderly pattern. Example: Crystal, grain; Glasses – a solid where atoms are not arranged in an orderly pattern 2 Rocks – Aggregates of mineral crystals/grains, or masses of natural gases (3 types of rocks. Melts – a melt forms when solid materials become hot and transform into liquid magma or lava. Volatiles – Materials that easily transform into gas at the relatively low temperatures found at the Earth’s surface. Pressure and temperature both increase with depth inside the Earth. What are Earth’s Layers made of? Crust There are two types of crust. Oceanic crust is thinner and consists of basalt rock (which is mafic rocks, with small grains) and gabbro rock (mafic rocks, with large grains). Continental crust varies in thickness and rock type (from felsic to intermediate rocks). Upper mantle (including the transition zone) consisting entirely of an ultramafic (dark and dense) rock called Peridotite. Lower mantle consisting entirely of Peridotite rock. Almost all of the mantle is solid rock, with only a few percent of the mantle has melted (occurring beneath the ocean floor). Although it is solid, mantle rock is so hot that it is soft enough to flow with a slow speed of 15 cm/yr. Outer core consisting of liquid iron alloy. It is liquid because of the high temperature. The iron alloy of the outer core can flow, and this flow generates Earth’s magnetic field. Inner core consisting of solid iron alloy. Although it is hotter than the outer core, the inner core is solid because it is deeper and is subjected to even greater pressure. The pressure keeps atoms locked together tightly in very dense materials. 3 4
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