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Chapter 16: The Final Passage

by: Siân L'Roy

Chapter 16: The Final Passage Psych 2314

Siân L'Roy


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This chapter discusses the different definitions of death ranging from culture to culture, how individuals handle the news of themselves or a love one who is dying, mercy killings, the type of care...
Developmental Psychology
Dr. Vince Limbo
Class Notes
developmental psychology
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Siân L'Roy on Friday August 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 2314 at Tarrant County College District taught by Dr. Vince Limbo in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Tarrant County College District.

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Date Created: 08/19/16
Chapter XVI: The Final Passage Definitions of Death  Varies by culture  Death as a(n) o Event o State of being o Analogy “dead as a doornail” o Mystery o Boundary o Thief of Meaning o Fear and Anxiety o Reward or Punishment  Clinical Death o Lack of heartbeat and respiration  Brain Death o Flat EEG o No spontaneous respiration for at least one hour  Persistent Vegetative State o Cortical functions cease o Brainstem activity continues and no recovery  Living will and durable power of attorney  Euthanasia­ Ending life for reasons of mercy o Passive­ Withholding available treatment o Active­ Deliberate ending of life based on the person’s wishes  Dr. Jack Kevorkian  Oregon and Netherlands laws Death and Dying­ Kubler­Ross  Five Stages Denial Anger Bargaining Depression Acceptance Chapter XVI: The Final Passage Hospice  Philosophy o “Promote death with dignity”  Does not follow the hospital model of care  Pain control and normal functioning  Client and family viewed as a unit  Free to begin or end relationship  Inpatient or Outpatient Kastenbaum’s Hospice Considerations  Is the client informed about their condition?  What are their available treatment options?  What are the client’s expectations, hopes, and fears?  Are family members available to participate in terminal care? Grieving Process  Bereavement o Condition caused by death (aka. Situation) o A person has no control over this  Grief o Feelings following a loss o Process involving choice in coping  Grieving is an active coping process o Acknowledge the reality of the loss o Work through the emotional turmoil o Adjust to the environment where the deceases is absent Chapter XVI: The Final Passage o Loosen ties to the deceased Risk Factors  Anticipatory grief­ mixed research results  Strength of Attachment o Sudden loss triggers greater grief, but less depression following loss  Personality traits  Social support buffers grief for older more than middle aged adults  The most difficult type to deal with is the death of a child Five Themes in Grieving   Coping­ What people do to help themselves  Affect­ Emotional reactions  Change­ Ways survivors lives change  Narrative­ Stories survivors tell (Romanize the deceased)  Relationship­ Nature of ties between survivor and the deceased Dying Across the Life Span  Childhood o Open and Honest o Coping abilities are more limited than adults o Give permission to express feelings o More problems from inadequate care following death from less  e.g.: Gerbil dies­ What do the parents do?; buy new gerbil o Do not use Euphemisms  “Went to sleep”  “Died and went to Heaven”  Adolescence o Grief reaction can be severe o Reluctant to discuss their feelings o Few non­bereaved peers are willing to talked with bereaved students about  feelings or even feel comfortable with them o Survivor’s guilt may result in ending relationships with mutual friends  Adulthood o More intense feelings o Young  Deal with both themselves and young children o Middle to Late Chapter XVI: The Final Passage  Death of a parent(s)  Death of a spouse


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