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Biology 1012 Life: The Natural World Chapter 1, Week One

by: Madison Lovegren

Biology 1012 Life: The Natural World Chapter 1, Week One Biol 1012

Marketplace > University of Northern Iowa > Biology > Biol 1012 > Biology 1012 Life The Natural World Chapter 1 Week One
Madison Lovegren
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About this Document

Definitions of terms and summarization of important points for each section in the chapter.
Life: The Natural World
Barton L Bergquist
Class Notes
Biology, Ecology, UNI




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Madison Lovegren on Friday August 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biol 1012 at University of Northern Iowa taught by Barton L Bergquist in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 210 views. For similar materials see Life: The Natural World in Biology at University of Northern Iowa.


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Date Created: 08/19/16
Chapter One ­ The Nature of Ecology           highlight ­ definition    highlight ­ person Section 1.1 ­ Organisms Interact with the Environment in the Context of the Ecosystem Ecosystem: eco ­ relates to the environment, system ­ collection of related parts that function as a unit ­Ecosystem consists of two basic components  Biotic (living)  Abiotic (nonliving, physical)  Each organism responds to and modifies the physical environment, becomes  part of environment itself Section 1.2 ­ Ecosystem Components Form a Hierarchy Population: in ecology, a group of individuals of the same species that occupy a given area Community: all populations of different species living and interacting within an ecosystem  Populations of plants and animals don’t function independently of each other  Some populations compete with others for resources, others may just be a food source  for another, some may mutually benefit from each other Section 1.3 ­ Ecology Has a Rich History  Plant geographers Carl Ludwig Willdenow and Friedrich Humboldt pointed out regions of world with similar climates had vegetation similar in form, but different species o Helped lead way to exploring relationship between plant biology and plant  geography  Johannes Warming wrote the first text on plant ecology, Plantesamfund o Had big influence on early development of ecology  Thomas Malthus ­ population will be restrained by forces such as sickness and death  Charles Darwin ­ natural selection  Gregor Mendel ­ characteristics of pea plants Population genetics: study of evolution and adaptation Ecosystem ecology: study of whole living systems  Victor Shelford gave ecology a new direction by stressing interrelationships between  plants and animals (animal ecology) Population ecology: population growth, fluctuation, spread, and interactions Evolutionary ecology: natural selection and population evolutions Community ecology: species interactions Physiological ecology: responses of individual organisms to light, moisture, temperature, and  other environmental conditions Behavioral ecology: studying animal behavior; spawned by observations in natural history Landscape ecology: exploring spatial processes that linked nearby communities and  ecosystems Conservation ecology: applies principles of different fields (ecology, economics, sociology) to  the maintenance of biological diversity Restoration ecology: applying principles of ecosystem development and function to  restoration/management of disturbed lands Global ecology: understanding Earth as a system Section 1.4 ­ Ecology Has Strong Ties to Other Disciplines  Ecology is an interdisciplinary science o The interactions of organisms with their environment or with each other involve  physiological, behavioral, and physical responses o Studying these responses draws upon fields like physiology, biochemistry,  genetics, hydrology, geology, and meteorology Section 1.5 ­ Ecologists Use Scientific Methods  Hypothesis: an educated guess a scientist poses to explain something that has been  observed o Should be a statement of cause and effect that can be tested.  Data can be collected a number of ways o Field study o Field experiment o Lab experiments Section 1.6 ­ Experiments Can Lead to Predictions  Data represent a given place and time  Models use the understanding from the data to predict what will happen in  another place and time Model: abstract, simplified representations of real systems  Can be mathematical (like a computer simulation) or verbally descriptive  Hypotheses are models Section 1.7 ­ Uncertainty Is an Inherent Feature of Science  Uncertainty is part of scientific study o Comes from limitation of only being able to focus on a small subset of nature,  making the perspective incomplete  Since any number of hypotheses that are developed can be consistent with an  observation, proving observations are consistent with a hypothesis is not enough to  prove a hypothesis true  Real goal of hypothesis testing is to eliminate incorrect ideas Section 1.8 ­ The Individual Is the Basic Unit of Ecology  The individual organism forms the basic unit in ecology o Individual responds to the environment o Dynamics of populations are defined by the birth and death rate of individuals o Communities are defined by interactions among individuals of same and different species o The individual passes genes to successive generations


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