Biology 1012 Life: The Natural World Chapter 1, Week One
Biology 1012 Life: The Natural World Chapter 1, Week One Biol 1012
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Madison Lovegren on Friday August 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biol 1012 at University of Northern Iowa taught by Barton L Bergquist in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 210 views. For similar materials see Life: The Natural World in Biology at University of Northern Iowa.
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Date Created: 08/19/16
Chapter One The Nature of Ecology highlight definition highlight person Section 1.1 Organisms Interact with the Environment in the Context of the Ecosystem Ecosystem: eco relates to the environment, system collection of related parts that function as a unit Ecosystem consists of two basic components Biotic (living) Abiotic (nonliving, physical) Each organism responds to and modifies the physical environment, becomes part of environment itself Section 1.2 Ecosystem Components Form a Hierarchy Population: in ecology, a group of individuals of the same species that occupy a given area Community: all populations of different species living and interacting within an ecosystem Populations of plants and animals don’t function independently of each other Some populations compete with others for resources, others may just be a food source for another, some may mutually benefit from each other Section 1.3 Ecology Has a Rich History Plant geographers Carl Ludwig Willdenow and Friedrich Humboldt pointed out regions of world with similar climates had vegetation similar in form, but different species o Helped lead way to exploring relationship between plant biology and plant geography Johannes Warming wrote the first text on plant ecology, Plantesamfund o Had big influence on early development of ecology Thomas Malthus population will be restrained by forces such as sickness and death Charles Darwin natural selection Gregor Mendel characteristics of pea plants Population genetics: study of evolution and adaptation Ecosystem ecology: study of whole living systems Victor Shelford gave ecology a new direction by stressing interrelationships between plants and animals (animal ecology) Population ecology: population growth, fluctuation, spread, and interactions Evolutionary ecology: natural selection and population evolutions Community ecology: species interactions Physiological ecology: responses of individual organisms to light, moisture, temperature, and other environmental conditions Behavioral ecology: studying animal behavior; spawned by observations in natural history Landscape ecology: exploring spatial processes that linked nearby communities and ecosystems Conservation ecology: applies principles of different fields (ecology, economics, sociology) to the maintenance of biological diversity Restoration ecology: applying principles of ecosystem development and function to restoration/management of disturbed lands Global ecology: understanding Earth as a system Section 1.4 Ecology Has Strong Ties to Other Disciplines Ecology is an interdisciplinary science o The interactions of organisms with their environment or with each other involve physiological, behavioral, and physical responses o Studying these responses draws upon fields like physiology, biochemistry, genetics, hydrology, geology, and meteorology Section 1.5 Ecologists Use Scientific Methods Hypothesis: an educated guess a scientist poses to explain something that has been observed o Should be a statement of cause and effect that can be tested. Data can be collected a number of ways o Field study o Field experiment o Lab experiments Section 1.6 Experiments Can Lead to Predictions Data represent a given place and time Models use the understanding from the data to predict what will happen in another place and time Model: abstract, simplified representations of real systems Can be mathematical (like a computer simulation) or verbally descriptive Hypotheses are models Section 1.7 Uncertainty Is an Inherent Feature of Science Uncertainty is part of scientific study o Comes from limitation of only being able to focus on a small subset of nature, making the perspective incomplete Since any number of hypotheses that are developed can be consistent with an observation, proving observations are consistent with a hypothesis is not enough to prove a hypothesis true Real goal of hypothesis testing is to eliminate incorrect ideas Section 1.8 The Individual Is the Basic Unit of Ecology The individual organism forms the basic unit in ecology o Individual responds to the environment o Dynamics of populations are defined by the birth and death rate of individuals o Communities are defined by interactions among individuals of same and different species o The individual passes genes to successive generations
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