Biology 97 Lecture 1 Class Notes
Biology 97 Lecture 1 Class Notes 61860
Irvine Valley College
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Idda Colcol on Friday August 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 61860 at Irvine Valley College taught by Amy McWhorter in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Genetics and Evolutionary Biology in Biology at Irvine Valley College.
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Date Created: 08/19/16
Bio 97 (#61860): Lecture 1 Class Notes 8/22/2016 I. Genetics is relevant to many aspects of human life and society A. genetically modiﬁed organisms 1. beneﬁcial to consumers with regard to geographical region 2. Dolly the sheep - somatic nuclear cell transfer a) manipulated cells II. Three great milestones in Genetics A. the discovery of rules governing the inheritance of traits in organisms 1. father of genetics B. the identiﬁcation of the material responsible for this inheritance C. the analysis of the hereditary material in human beings and other organisms III.Prokaryotic Cell A. simple cells compared to eukaryotic cells B. always have plasma membrane, cytoplasm, DNA C. living as unicellular organisms D. the organism is the cell E. 1/100th to 1/1000th of eukaryotic cell F. belong to Archae and Bacteria domains G. no membrane bound organs internally H. bunch of ribosomes and DNA inside I. DNA is circular, plasmid J. single, circular chromosome K. we think of bacteria L. vast majority of bacteria classiﬁed are not harmful and beneﬁcial IV. Eukaryotic cell A. much more complex B. 100 to 1000x larger C. have membrane bound organelles - nucleus, ribosomes (machines of proteins and RNA to decode genome), endomembrane system (send capsules to one another), energy- related (mitochondria and chloroplasts), cytoskeleton (how cells hold their shape, framing, scaffolding, microtubules, intermediate ﬁlaments, help give structure to the cell, serve as highways for vesicles to travel on) V. Plant cell vs. animal cell A. plant cells 1. cell wall - helps cells hold their shape a) helps keep cell together even though there is little water inside vacuole 2. central vacuole 3. chloroplasts - converting energy from sun into food, nutrient molecules mainly sugar B. animal cell 1. lysosomes a) contain digestive enzymes, are kept compartmentalized 2. centrioles VI. Organelles A. nucleus 1. main center of cell 2. controls the DNA 3. nucleolus a) where ribosomes get partially assembled B. ribosomes 1. slightly different in two different cells but largely conserved 2. site of protein synthesis 3. can be free ﬂoating in cytosol 4. or attached to endoplasmic reticulum C. endoplasmic reticulum 1. rough ER - has ribosomes a) where protein synthesis can take place 2. smooth ER - no ribosomes 3. difference in function D. golgi apparatus 1. ﬁnishes, sorts, and packages materials 2. has numerous enzymes that help in sorting of proteins 3. every protein has zip code 4. “shipping center” 5. like Postal service E. endomembrane system F. mitochondria 1. two membranes a) inner membrane - phospholipid bilayer (1) wavy line - more surface area (2) where electron transport chain is located (3) matrix (a) mitochondrial DNA, little bit of DNA (b) relevant that contain genes transcribed and translated to DNA (4) cristae are inner folded membranes (5) inherited maternally b) outer membrane G. chloroplast 1. produce and store food via photosynthesis 2. contain chlorophyll 3. have inner and outer membrane 4. thylakoids - lots of surface area to capture solar energy to perform photosynthesis VII.The cell’s internal skeleton helps organize its structure and activities A. cytoskeleton 1. microﬁlaments 2. intermediate ﬁlaments 3. microtubules