CH 4513 Week 1 Notes
CH 4513 Week 1 Notes CH 4513
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Broolah on Friday August 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CH 4513 at Mississippi State University taught by Thedford Hollis in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 94 views. For similar materials see Organic Chemistry in Chemistry at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 08/19/16
8-17-16 Chpt. 1 Reviewing basic concepts from General chemistry. Sec 1.2 Atomic Structure -Atoms H O S All have different Lewis Dot structures. Different e orbitals have different Energies S, Px, Py, z (P orbitals are of the same energy) -Atomic # = # of protons -H 2O 4toms bond together to create molecules -Atomic mass= protons+ neutrons -Neutrons can vary within the same element creating Isotopes C C C13 14 -Valence shell electrons are involved in bonding Sec 1.3 Molecules and Bonding -Ionic bonding – NaCl is between Na and Cl - -Covalent bonding is the sharing of electrons – H-H share their electrons, so do CH a4d Cl 2 8-19-16 More review of General Chemistry Sec 1.4 Lewis Dot Structures Looking at the molecule DCM or Dichloromethane CH 2l 2 1. Find out the total number of valence electrons or each atom. C- 4 e 2H- 2 e 2Cl- 14 e Total e = 20 e 2. Find which atoms have single bonds and which have more than one bond. 1 bond 4bonds H C carbon is usually hybridized in this class, and thus is H an exception Cl Cl 3. Find the central atom : in this case it is carbon because it has more bonding capabilities. 4. Use multiple bonds to give each atom an octet 5. Each atom in this structure of CO 3-2has a formal charge. The formal charge of an atom is found using this formula: FC= Natural valence electrons - # of unpaired electrons - # of bonds Thus, the formal charge of each atom looks like this: Resonance- Delocalization of pi-bonds and lone pairs of electrons or unpaired electrons. A pi-bond is one bond in a double bond, or the mixing of two p-orbitals. A sigma bond is a bond between two s-orbitals, or one s-orbital and one p-orbital. These all affect the structure of a molecule, and allow it to have resonance. An example of a resonance structure: This molecule’s atoms’ electrons can be delocalized in its current structure and be taken note of elsewhere: Remember to note that the curved arrows must accurately represent how many electrons are being displaced. Sec. 1.7 Drawing Organic Molecules - Each corner is representative of a carbon atom. - If it is an end of a strand of carbons, that carbon is assumed to have 3 hydrogens and one bond to another carbon. This is a much faster way of representing each atom in a molecule without writing in condensed form or dash-line form. 1.7 D - These shapes are not all planar: - You must recognize the angles of each bond on a molecule in order to understand its 3-D appearance.
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