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Human Anatomy and Physiology notes wk 1

by: Hailey Bates

Human Anatomy and Physiology notes wk 1 BIO 3348

Marketplace > Troy University > Biology > BIO 3348 > Human Anatomy and Physiology notes wk 1
Hailey Bates
Troy University
GPA 4.0
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Notes from the first week of class.
Human Anatomy and Physiology II
Julian Pittman
Class Notes




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hailey Bates on Friday August 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 3348 at Troy University taught by Julian Pittman in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 127 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology II in Biology at Troy University.

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Date Created: 08/19/16
Anatomy and Physiology II Endocrine System Week One Example: Sperm Count  Sperm count has decreased 50% in the last 100 years. Why? o Radiowaves, technology, food, stress, medicine, genetic tendencies  All examples of ENDOCRINE DISRUPTORS  BPAs o An endocrine disruptor o Estrogen mimic  Binds to estrogen receptors and causes the same response as estrogen  Excess estrogen leads to breast and ovarian cancer in women and reduced sperm count in males Endocrine disruptors  Include synthetic chemicals  Mimics or blocks hormones causing a disruption in normal functions  Affects of disruptors o Alters normal hormone levels  EX. Sperm count (increase in estrogen or decrease in testosterone) o Halt or stimulate the production of hormones  Endocrine system is the most tightly regulated system in the body o Changes the way hormones travel through the body  Blood flow rate (Perfusion)  Highly perfuse tissues o Brain, kidneys, lungs o Found in tissues with a high metabolic rate  Limited perfusion o Bone, fat o Do not carry many hormones  Capable of reducing fertility, creating birth defects, and delaying or inducing hormonal changes  Known disruptors o Dioxin, PCBs, DDT, pesticides Binding (Transport) Proteins  Are affected by endocrine disruptors o Under or overproduction of protein  Ex. Albumin o Common in blood o Hormones bind to the protein and are carried to tissues Endocrine system maintaining homeostasis  Hormones act on distant target cells  Maintain stability of internal environment Themes of the endocrine system  Sensing and signaling o Endocrine glands synthesize and store hormones o Similar to nervous system except slower (can take days)  Nervous system does not need an immediate response  Makes it easier for glands to predict responses  Provides a physiological economy  “Cheap to maintain”  Requires less energy expenditure for everyday events Endocrine System Nervous System Both -Anatomically -Exerts point to point -Major communication discontinuous (Travel control through systems and large distance nerves (similar to -Integrate stimuli from production site sending messages by -Respond to changes to response) conventional in external and -Broadcasts hormonal telephone) internal environment messages to -Electrical -Crucial to essentially all cells by -Fast coordinated function secretion into blood of highly and extracellular fluid differentiated cells -To receive response, cells have receptors for the hormone being sent Types of cell-to-cell signaling  Classic endocrine o Hormones travel via bloodstream o Travel a great distance  Neurohormones o Hormones released via synapses (in Neuron) and travel in blood stream o EX. Epinephrine  Quick and easy methods with limited scope of action o Intracrine  Hormones act within the cell that produces it o Paracrine  Hormones act locally by diffusing from source to target cells nearby o Autocrine  Hormones act on the same cell that produced it  Self stimulating or inhibiting Receptors  Type of receptor dictates type of response o EX. Insulin  In liver cells insulin stimulates glycogen synthesis  In adipose (fat) insulin stimulates triglyceride synthesis  A cell is a target because it has a specific receptor for the hormone  A given hormone usually affects only a limited number of cells (target cells) o The target cell responds because it has the proper receptor  Are constantly being synthesized and broken down  Cells have the ability to respond to what is needed (more or less hormone) o Down regulation  Excess hormone causes a decrease in number of receptors  Receptors undergo endocytosis and are degraded  Cell’s sensitivity to hormone decreases  Prevents hyperstimulation o Up regulation  Deficiency of hormone causes synthesis of receptors  Targeted tissue becomes more sensitive to hormone  Speeds up reaction times Mechanisms of hormone action  Hormone binds to cell surface or receptor of target cell then cells o Synthesize new molecules o Change permeability of membrane o Alter rates of reaction Major Hormones and systems  Top down organization of endocrine system  Hypothalamus produces releasing factors that simulate production of anterior pituitary hormone which act on peripheral endocrine glands to stimulate release of a third hormone o Hypothalamus receives input from the cortex (responsible for conscious thinking), thalamus (integration center), limbic system (emotions), and internal organs (through negative feedback pathways) o Hypothalamus then controls the pituitary with nine types of hormones that either release or inhibit o Anterior pituitary actually produces the hormone  Corticotropin Releasing  Response to stress causes pituitary to release ACTH which is sent to the adrenal gland which produces cortisol  GH (growth hormone) releasing hormone  The anterior pituitary (AP) secretes sometatropin (maintains structural elements)  GH inhibiting hormone  Works with GH releasing hormone  EX. Dwarfism o Caused by decrease in sensitivity to GH releasing hormone receptors  Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GNRH)  AP secretes LH and FSH (responsible for maintenance of sexual reproduction structures)  Melanocyte releasing hormone  Created in the intermediate lobe of the pituitary  Wide range of effects including skin, nail and hair color, appetite and sexual arousal  Melanocyte inhibiting hormone  Works with melanocyte releasing hormone  Prolactin releasing hormone  The AP secretes some type of hormone that results in prolactin  Not much is known about this hormone  Prolactin in involved in milk production and 300 other bodily functions (very diffuse effects)  Prolactin inhibiting hormone  Similar to above  Thyrotropin releasing hormone  AP secretes thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)  Thyroid regulates metabolism  Posterior pituitary hormones o Synthesized in neuronal cell bodies in the hypothalamus and are released via synapses in posterior pituitary o This stimulating factor regulates target organs o Hormones are not produced in the posterior pituitary, just stored o Oxytocin  Birth o Vasopressin  Saltwater balance


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