Cognitive Neuroscience Day 2
Cognitive Neuroscience Day 2 4140
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Selin Odman on Friday August 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 4140 at University of Georgia taught by Dr. Haas in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Cognitive Neuroscience in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 08/19/16
PSYC 4140 – Cognitive Neuroscience 8/18/16 Lesion Methods -Patients were brain injuries/diseases can be observed with different behavior like talking too much or too little. *These experiments are done on animals like mice: will lesions to certain parts of the brain affect the way the mice navigate a maze? -Trans-cranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) can create short-term lesions in the human brain *A magnetic pulse is passed through the brain and alters brain composition by altering neurons in the brain – when the magnetic pulse stops, the brain goes back to normal -Temporal parietal junction: part of the brain which lets us try to understand someone else’s perspective -Electric Convulsion Therapy (ECT): still used today in large hospitals for treating severe depression. *Why it works is not exactly clear…but there are side effects like memory loss *TMS is sort of like targeted ECT on a smaller scale – can possible help with depression Optogenetics -Ion channels found in phytoplankton respond to light -Scientists have taken these ion channels and implanted them into mice brains, forming a mouse brain with parts that are reactant to light. *This allows researchers to shine light onto parts of the brain to turn neurons on or off The Big Questions in Cognitive Neuroscience Why have a brain at all? How is information coded in neural activity? -Neurons are firing off and receiving signals, but we don’t know much about the language of neurons. How does the brain balance stability against change? -Our brain, like our bodies, maintain homeostasis -Memory is associated with changes in our brain structure and function, so how does this relate to homeostasis? How does vision have so little to do with the eyes? -There is a basic understanding of how eyes work -> light goes through cones in our eyes to project an image in the back of our brain which we perceive -However, perception is created in our brain but it’s not understood through our eyes. How does the brain stitch together a picture of the world from different sense? -Eating/sensing/feeling food -Playing a sport feels like one single experience, but it’s actually very technical and consists of many singular parts 1 PSYC 4140 – Cognitive Neuroscience 8/18/16 How does the brain control our actions? -Even just raising our arm is a multi-step action -There are different neurons responsible for each step but they work together What is consciousness? -Why is this important for evolution? -Does the brain process this automatically or was it an evolutionary accident? How are memories stores and retrieved? -Memories are finite -> if some memories come in, some have to go out -How does the brain prioritize this system? What do brains sleep and dream? -Sleeping and dreaming is usually known as a restorative state -Can also enhance memory -Dreams can be a testing ground for our ideas before we actually do them How does the human brain acquire its unique ability for language? -What makes this ability possible for humans? How do we make decisions? What are emotions? How do I know what you’re thinking? What causes disorder of the mind and the brain? The Payoffs of Cognitive Neuroscience Healing the disordered brain -Parkinson’s, severe depression -Changing the way we view mental illness Enhancing human abilities -Making memory stronger/better Blueprints for artificial cognition -Hoping to understand the brain better Brain-compatible social policies -Helping us to understand how the brain helps us make social decisions 2
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