PY 101, week 1
PY 101, week 1 PY 101
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashley Bartolomeo on Friday August 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PY 101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by TBA in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 128 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 08/19/16
Introduction to Psychology and Research Methods A Brief History of Psychology What is Psychology? The study (through research) of the o Mind Mental activity (emotions) o Brain Mental activity resulting from biological processes o Behavior Observable actions Roots of Psychology Philosophy (nature/ nurture & mind/ body debates) 1879: First psychology lab (Germany; Wilhelm Wundt) First schools of thoughts o Structuralism: belief that conscious experience can be broken down into components o Functionalism: belief that the mind helps humans adapt to environmental demands The Expansion of Psychology Biological Approach: focus on genetic, hormonal & neurochemical explanations of behavior o SSRI’s to treat depression to change chemical makeup in the brain Psychoanalysis: innate drives of sex and aggression (nature). Social upbringing during childhood (nurture) o Make the unconscious conscious Cognitive Psychology: innate mental structures such as schemas, perception & memory and constantly changed by the environment o Like a computer processing information Humanism: Maslow emphasized basic physical needs. Society influences a person’s self concept Behaviorism: all behavior is learned from the environment through conditioning o Humans are like a machine; questions free will Social Approaches to Psychology Emphasizes the power of the situation and the way individuals are shaped via their interactions with others Research Methodology What is Scientific Inquiry? Psychologists study the what, when and why of behavior and mental processes Scientific inquiry utilizes the scientific method o More objective than casual observations o Systematic: procedures follow orderly steps that are carefully planned o Free from bias* The Scientific Method Three essential elements: o Theory: interconnected ideas or concepts used to explain prior observations and to make predictions Good theories will: Generate many hypotheses that are testable Be replicable Stand the test of time Theories may not always be confirmed and unexpected findings may be found, this is not always a bad thing o Hypothesis: a scientific prediction of what should be observed in the world if a theory is correct Good predictions are falsifiable o Research: conduct research, analyze data, record results To Evaluate Research, You Need to Think Critically Critical thinking o Evaluating information o Question claims o Seek definitions for the parts of the claims o Evaluate claims by looking Noncritical Thinking Can Lead to Incorrect Conclusions Ignoring evidence Failing to accurately judge source credibility Misunderstanding or not using statistics Seeing relationships that do not exist Using relative comparisons Accepting after the fact explanations Taking mental shortcuts Failing to see our own inadequacies (selfserving bias)
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