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PY 101, week 1

by: Ashley Bartolomeo

PY 101, week 1 PY 101

Ashley Bartolomeo
GPA 3.9
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Notes on lecture 2
Intro to Psychology
Class Notes
Intro to Psychology




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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashley Bartolomeo on Friday August 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PY 101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by TBA in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 128 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.

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Date Created: 08/19/16
Introduction to Psychology and Research Methods A Brief History of Psychology What is Psychology?  The study (through research) of the  o Mind  Mental activity (emotions) o Brain  Mental activity resulting from biological processes o Behavior  Observable actions Roots of Psychology  Philosophy (nature/ nurture & mind/ body debates)  1879: First psychology lab (Germany; Wilhelm Wundt)  First schools of thoughts o Structuralism: belief that conscious experience can be broken down into  components o Functionalism: belief that the mind helps humans adapt to environmental  demands The Expansion of Psychology  Biological Approach: focus on genetic, hormonal & neurochemical explanations of  behavior  o SSRI’s to treat depression to change chemical makeup in the brain  Psychoanalysis: innate drives of sex and aggression (nature).  Social upbringing during  childhood (nurture) o Make the unconscious conscious  Cognitive Psychology: innate mental structures such as schemas, perception & memory  and constantly changed by the environment o Like a computer processing information  Humanism: Maslow emphasized basic physical needs.  Society influences a person’s self  concept  Behaviorism: all behavior is learned from the environment through conditioning o Humans are like a machine; questions free will Social Approaches to Psychology  Emphasizes the power of the situation and the way individuals are shaped via their  interactions with others Research Methodology  What is Scientific Inquiry?  Psychologists study the what, when and why of behavior and mental processes  Scientific inquiry utilizes the scientific method o More objective than casual observations o Systematic: procedures follow orderly steps that are carefully planned o Free from bias* The Scientific Method  Three essential elements: o Theory: interconnected ideas or concepts used to explain prior observations and to make predictions  Good theories will:  Generate many hypotheses that are testable  Be replicable  Stand the test of time  Theories may not always be confirmed and unexpected findings may be  found, this is not always a bad thing o Hypothesis: a scientific prediction of what should be observed in the world if a  theory is correct  Good predictions are falsifiable o Research: conduct research, analyze data, record results To Evaluate Research, You Need to Think Critically  Critical thinking o Evaluating information o Question claims o Seek definitions for the parts of the claims o Evaluate claims by looking Noncritical Thinking Can Lead to Incorrect Conclusions  Ignoring evidence  Failing to accurately judge source credibility  Misunderstanding or not using statistics  Seeing relationships that do not exist  Using relative comparisons  Accepting after the fact explanations  Taking mental shortcuts  Failing to see our own inadequacies (self­serving bias)


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