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Week 1 Notes (Prologue Outline)

by: Ashley Notetaker

Week 1 Notes (Prologue Outline) 1013

Marketplace > Mississippi State University > Psychology > 1013 > Week 1 Notes Prologue Outline
Ashley Notetaker
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About this Document

These notes cover everything in the prologue of the Psychology book (Psychology 11th edition David G. Myers, C. Nathan Dewall). I strongly encourage you guys to download these notes and print them ...
General Psychology
Rebecca Armstrong
Class Notes
Psychology, general




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashley Notetaker on Friday August 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1013 at Mississippi State University taught by Rebecca Armstrong in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 176 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychology at Mississippi State University.


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Date Created: 08/19/16
Prologue  The Story of Psychology    I. What is Psychology?  The scientific study of the human mind and its functions, especially those affecting behavior in a  given context. Who are we? What produces our thoughts? Our feelings? Our actions?     A. Psychological Science Is Born  ­To be human is to be curious. Aristotle (greek naturalist & philosopher) theorized about  learning and memory, motivation and emotion, perception and personality.     1.Psychology’s First Laboratory  1879­Germany  ­Wilhelm Wundt created an experimental apparatus. His machine measured time­log between  people’s hearing a ball hit platform and their pressing a telegraph key. (To be aware of one's  awareness takes a little longer)     2. Structuralism & Functionalism    Structuralism  ­Introspection­The examination or observation of one’s own mental and emotional processes  How the brain is structured.    Functionalism  ­Explores how mental and behavioral processes function (how they enable the organism to  adapt, survive, or flourish)     ​3. First Women in Psychology  ­Mary Whiton Calkins attended Harvard and was admitted into James’ graduate seminar. All the  students (men) dropped out. Calkins had finished all of Harvard’s Ph.D. requirements,  outscoring all the male students. Harvard denied her the degree she had earned and offered her  a degree from Radcliffe College (Harvard’s undergraduate “sister” school for women) instead.  Calkins resisted the unequal treatment and refused the degree.   ­Margaret Floy Washburn became the first female psychology Ph.D.    B. Psychological Science Develops     1.Behaviorism  ­Psychology was defined as “the science of mental life” up until the 1920s.  John B. Watson, and later B. F. Skinner, dismissed introspection and redefined psychology as  “the scientific study of observable behavior”  You cannot observe a sensation, a feeling, or a thought, but you can observe and record  people’s behavior as they respond to and learn in different situations.     2. Freudian Psychology  ­Emphasized the ways our unconscious thought processes and our emotional responses to  childhood experiences affect our behavior.     3. Humanistic Psychology  ­Rejected the behaviorist definition.   ­Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow found both Freudian psychology and behaviorism too  limiting.  ­Rather than focusing on childhood memories or the learning of conditioned responses, the  humanistic psychologist drew attention to ways that current environmental influences can  nurture or limit our growth and potential, and the importance of having our needs for love and  acceptance.     4. Cognitive Revolution  ­Led the field back to its early interest in mental processes.  ­Cognitive Psychology scientifically explores the ways we perceive, process, and remember  information.  ­Cognitive Neuroscience was birthed by the marriage of cognitive psychology and  neuroscience.     ​5. Modern Definition of Psychology  ­Today we define psychology as the science of behavior and mental processes.    C. Contemporary Psychology  ­The story of Psychology continues to develop in many places, at many levels, with interests  ranging from the study of nerve cell activity to the study of international conflicts.     1. Evolutionary Psychology and Behavior Genetics  ­Nature­nurture issue is the longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes  and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors. ­Today’s  science sees traits and behaviors arising from the interaction of nature and nurture.  ­Natural selection is the principle that of the range of inherited traits, the ones that contribute to  reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to future generations.  ­Behavior genetics­focus of diversity between our differing environments and genes     2. Cross­Cultural and Gender Psychology  ­Our culture shapes our behavior.  ­Our shared biological heritage unites us as a universal human family.  ­Researchers report gender differences in what we dream, in how we express and detect  emotions, and in our risk for alcohol use disorder, depression, and eating disorders.   ​3. Positive Psychology  ­Psychologist from the early 2000s have called for more research on human flourishing without  slighting the need to repair damage and cure disease.  ­They believe that happiness is a by­product of a  pleasant, engaged, and meaningful life.  ­Thus, positive psychology uses scientific methods to explore the building of a “good life” that  engages our skills, and a “meaningful life” that points beyond ourselves.     4.Psychology’s Three Main Levels of Analysis  Biological influences:  ● Genetic predispositions (genetically influenced traits)  ● Genetic mutations  ● Natural selection of adaptive traits and behaviors passed down  ● Genes responding to the environment  Psychological influences:  ● Learned fears and other learned expectations  ● Emotional responses  ● Cognitive processing and perceptual interpretations  Social­cultural influences:  ● Presence of others  ● Cultural, societal, and family expectations  ● Peer and other group influences  ● Compelling models (such as in the media)     5. Psychology’s Subfields  Some psychologies conduct basic research (pure science that aims to increase the scientific  knowledge base).  ★ Biological psychologist​ exploring the links between brain and mind.  ★ Developmental psychologists  ​ studying our changing abilities from womb to tomb.  ★ Cognitive psychologists​ experiment with how we perceive, think, and solve problems  ★ Personality psychologist i​ nvestigate our persistent traits  ★ Social psychologist  ​ explore how we view and affect one another  These and other psychologist may also conduct applied research (scientific study that aims to  solve practical problems).  ★ Industrial­Organizational Psychologists u ​ se psychology’s concepts and methods in  the workplace to help organizations and companies select and train employees, boost  morale and productivity.  ​ As a science, psychology at its best bases such interventions on ​evidence of effectiveness.  ★ Counseling psychologists  ​ help people to cope with challenges and crises.  ★ Clinical psychologists​ assess and treat people with mental, emotional, and behavior  disorders.  ★ By contrast, ​psychiatrists​, who also may provide psychotherapy, are medical doctors  licensed to prescribe drugs and otherwise treat physical causes of psychological  disorders.  Rather than seeking to change people to fit their environment, c ​ ommunity psychologist  ​ work  to create social and physical environments that are healthy for all.      Improve Your Retention­­­And Your Grades!  ­Testing effect (retrieval practice effect or test­enhanced learning)­instead of rereading  constantly, test yourself of previously studied material.  ­The mind is more like a muscle that grows stronger with exercise.  SQ3R a study method incorporating five steps: Survey, Question, Read, Retrieve, Review.  To study a chapter:  1. Survey/scan over the headings  2. Before you read each main section try to answer its numbered Learning  Objective Question  3. Read actively looking for the answer to the question.  4. When done reading a section, retrieve its main ideas.  5. Read over any notes you have taken (Review) and quickly review the whole  chapter.  ­Space your study time over several study periods.  ­Learn to think critically.  ­Process class information actively.  ­Overlearn.    ****STUDY QUESTIONS​: Look at the end of the prologue for questions over the material you  just learned. Also, recommended terms and concepts to remember is in this section also.   


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