Global Studies global
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This 24 page Class Notes was uploaded by Anahit Ghaltaghchyan on Friday August 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to global at University of California Santa Barbara taught by Dr. Philip McCarty in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see intro to global studies 1 in Global Studies at University of California Santa Barbara.
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Date Created: 08/19/16
▯ First wave issues Went often forget how basic the issues were Too often women were treated as breeding stock Seeking the right NOT to bear 16 children They fought for control over their own bodies sex, reproductive capacity ▯ More first wave issues Right to education starting with literacy Employment, income, saving Right to own property Citizenship, representation, voice Participation in society outside of home If not legal equality, at least legal standing o Domestic violence o Right to divorce and custody o Mental competence ▯ Virginia Woolf- a Room of One’s own ▯ Sexual segregation facilitated new organizational developments for women, women historically could only work together in churches and marketplace Women’s Christian temperance union largest US women’s group at turn ▯ Wins and Losses Women’s rights movement provided models for other movements sponsoring equal admission for women to all social privileges like control over ▯ WWI and aftermath WWI accomplished much that decades of political organization did not Womens role in wartime economy, caring for the wounded, demonstrating patriotism Gabe mew energy to suffrage movement Feminism exploded in Russian Rev of 1917 which gave equal rights to women ▯ Consumer culture and the women’s movement As consumer goods flooded the market after WWI, commodities encouraged “freedom of choice” Inventions such as the telephone changed practices like dating New models of womanhood and the feminine are produced by film and entertainment ▯ Defining the problem Socialists-poverty, not inequality, is the issue Charlotte perking, Woolf- economic independence and freedom from domesticity and family, not poverty, is the issue Margaret Sanger- reproductive independence, not economic freedom, is the issue ▯ 19 amendment susan B Anthony and Elizabeth cay staon draft the amendment and first introduce it ▯ Prohibition-Roaring 20’s Prohibition made drinking illegal Women weren’t allowed in bars But they were allowed in speakeasy’s A place single women could dance with men ▯ Great depression and war 1929 crash set back many social agendas including feminism world war II, once again many women brought into the workplace ▯ Geraldine Hoff 1942 Westinghouse poster ▯ Rosie the Riveter ▯ ▯ Back to the Kitchen After WWII there was a huge push to restore the pre war social order Soldiers were employed, sent to college on the GI Bill Women were enticed back to the kitchen Appliances were seen as the key ▯ Suburban nightmare Women found that the suburban ideal was not all it was supposed to be Unhappy housewives were often made to feel inadequate, diagnose are neurotic ▯ Second wave 1950’s to 60’s Post great depression and WWII Civil rights movement 1955-86 o Counter-cultural revolution o Vietnam war protest Betty Freidan attacks cult od domesticity o Isolation of suburbia o Boredom with menial tasks o Reduction in educational opportunities o Complete lack of intellectual stimulation Angry Middle class suburban housewives Found having the vote was not the same as being equal Began to tackle more slippery issues Workplace discrimination, sexual harassment Equal pay, the glass ceiling Day care centers Domestic violence, date rape Access to safe abortions Civil rights act of 1964 Women gain some protections from discrimination on the back of civil rights movement The provisions of CRA were not enforced National organization of women 1966 ▯ Gloria Steinmen and Dorothy Pitman Hughes ▯ ▯ Equal rights amendments act Was passed by congress States failed to ratify ▯ Third wave feminism Began almost in same moment as second. As the demands of white women were echoed by a chorus of black, Asian and Latina women of color Non white- not suburban, not middle class and not necessarily heterosexual ▯ Fourth wave After failure of the equal rights amendment not what? Anita Hill case (1991)- sexual harassment in workplace Reaction of the conservative moment End of affirmative action and other progressive programs Were is feminism today? ▯ Inequality persists Glass ceiling in general Rampant sexual violence on university campuses Rampant misogyny deemed acceptable in mainstream culture Increase in objectification in media and often women participating in this ▯ Setting feminism back Resulting in backlashing o In IV many sexual behaviors coming back o Increasing in sexual assaults CEDAW 1981 Pill video July 16 1950’s birth control- scientific community wanted nothing to do with it pregnancy is only break on human lust Margaret Sanger- birth control advocate Constolk laws Gregory Pinkus- in vitro fertilization of animals Playing with human life in test tube image set out Baby boom “Mrs. Degree” catholic-crisis of faith imprisonment and crime from using birth control in certain towns. Hysterectomy’s right after birth Katherine Dexter McCormick. Graduated from MIT. Provided money Progesterone injections to animals stops ovulation Couldn’t run a clinical trial on women John Rock- catholic infertility specialist. In favor of the pill Enovid- the name that the pill came up as, sought out to treat “menstrual cycle complicaitons” Female virtue held up to a much higher standard. Double standard, since promiscuity is still seen as a bad thing in terms of women. 1965- more than 6 million women taking the pill black genocide sexual revolution Pope denies. Rock sees as a very unwise decision. Grows distant from church “The pill could kill” Barbara Seaman- wrote book about the of the dangers of the pill th The pill did more for women in the 19 century than any other things in history Lecture 13 Environmental movement o One of the largest global social movements in history o Some concepts can be traced back to earliest civilization o Includes many diverse social, religious, political and scientific communities o Spawned a wide variety of international organizations Industrial rev o Second industrial rev 1850 o Agricultural way of life ended for many o Urbanization, overcrowding, sewage o Coal fired plants blackened the skies around urban centers o Hectic pace of modern life and industrial work o Romantic backlash as a rejection of modern materialistic society. Pristine. Tension of the contrast of reality and romanticized past ▯ Idealized landscapes without people ▯ ▯ Conservative philosophy Based on a profound respect of nature and the wilderness Romantic vision of getting back to nature Robinson crusoe--recovering ones wilderness was a remedy for modern society Call of the wild Outdoor activities come about ▯ Conservation Philosophers Thoreau, John Audubon- Birds of America- artist multipage book. John Muir- Track of Yosemite. Also same time of end of civil war. NATIONAL park Yellowstone Sierra club Near extinction of the bison Buffalo Nill- railway companies hired to kill bisons. To clear land for farming. Upset relationships with natives. Sell meat Passenger pigeon. Extinction Tasmanian tiger extinct by 1936 th ▯ 20 century conservation Teddy Roosevelt president 1901 Gifford Pinchot, first chief of USFS opposing views to Muir 1905 National Audubon society 1905 National park service 1916 ▯ Roosevelt and Muir Conversationalists manage nature o Planned use and renewal o Cattle ranchers, farers and hunters o Nature was a resource that could be managed like any other o Used could be maximized o Exploitation could be efficient ▯ Shift from conservation to preservation ▯ Disasters and extinctions began to highlight Consumption/destructive capacity of global economic system Limits of natural resources Complexity of natural ecosystem Limitation of science to solve problems ▯ Bikini Atoll 1946-58. Bomb testing. Hydrogen testing’s ▯ ▯ National park crisis “our national parks are being overused over loved. They’re being loved to death: ▯ ▯ Smokey the bear and yogi the bear ▯ National park problems ▯ Happy family idea ▯ ▯ DDT was widely used in WWII to fight malaria ▯ DDT remains in the environment for decades ▯ Use continues into the 1960’s ▯ ▯ Rachel Carson – book about the dangers of DDT and mercury, messing with the balance of nature. Silent spring ▯ Ecological food system ▯ ▯ Earth Rise 1968- Apollo 8 ▯ ▯ Preservation Philosophy Death does not belong to use, we belong to mother earth Modern humans and their machines intrude into nature Alternative philosophy to conserving nature with science By use along we destroy our future Nature needs to be protected from us ▯ Iron Eyes Cody- Keep American Beautiful ad campaign ▯ ▯ Santa Barbara oil spill 1969- starts environmental movement ▯ ▯ First Earth day- 1970. 20 million protestors on streets ▯ ▯ From regional to global Focus shift from local to global Acid rain, ozone, global warming ocean pollutions ▯ Keeling curve 1958- carbon dioxide atmospheric first demonstration of climate change early on ▯ ▯ Ocean acidification. Rate of change 100 times natural rate. Collapsing food chain from the bottom up. Absorbed CO2 from the atmosphere ▯ ▯ Crisis environmentalism Recognition that science and progress were causing much of the problem Cold war fear of nuclear war Growing population Over and under development ▯ Who is most impacted by climate change> The minorities that were pushed out of the fertile valley to marginal islands and are being squeezed hardest Climate refugee o Existing immigration problems Globalization of the economy Wars, famine and floods o Compounded by climate change Drought desertification Agricultural impact Indigenous people not causing the problem but are forced to deal with it ▯ ▯ Re defining development Economical and agricultural developments are very close related Climate change affects agriculture ▯ Sustainability Combines elements of conversation and preservation Changes the time horizon Links environmental concerns Lecture 14- NGOs. Social movements and civil societies Social movements Large informal groupings o Not contained in one organization o Concerned with specific issues o Issues can be political or social May work for or against social change Local, national, transnational, regional or global ▯ Global Social Movements We have already talked about some of the largest global social movements Human rights Feminism and woman’s movement Environmentalism ▯ Public sphere Jurgen Habeas The structural transformation of the public sphere 1962. Oral conversations with other people The public discursive space where issues are discussed public opinion is formed Dependent on a free press and arises with gutenberg printing press, newspapers and mass media Discursive space where individuals and groups come together to freely discuss and identify societal problems ▯ Civil society Civil society is the area outside of the home, state and market Where people associate and organize to advance common interests The institutional manifestation of the more nebulous public sphere Civil society is the engine of social change in todays world ▯ Government- private sector or business- free press, public sphere, civil society ▯ Digital communications has totally changed the public sphere- social media The global digital divide. Many countries do not have access to internet Public sphere Ideally the public reaches a common judgment on matters of mutual interests The public then forms civil society organizations to try and influence political action Public sphere supposedly mediates between government and business ▯ Role of Media Gutenberg printing press 1436 Print media, wider literacy Increasing mobility and communication Media did play and still plays an important role in o Scientific revolution o Nationalism o Democratization o Industrial revolution o Consumer society ▯ The role of public opinion Public sphere is where the public GETS its information Monitors government and business sectors Debates the issues Forms a public opinion Decides how to vote Organizes collective action ▯ The value of the free press Freedom of the press is essential for a healthy public sphere An independent public sphere is a necessary prerequisite for participatory democracy To have an informed citizenry, the public sphere must be independent of o Government sector o Private business sector ▯ Rupert Murdoch - own many media corporations. New of the World newspaper- racy newspaper. Has been hacking into peoples phones, particularly politicians and the Queen’s phone. ▯ ▯ Who owns the media owns the public sphere In nations described as authoritarian by most international think tanks and NGOs, media ownership is generally ………………. 1980’s- many more number of corporations that control a majority of US media. Down to a total of 5 in 2004. ▯ History of Global social movements Most obvious- associated with abolitionism ▯ Abolitions a GSM Slavery and abolition movements date back to ancient times We don’t often think of slave revolts as abolition but revolts happened continuously up to present Here are dozens of examples of abolition in counties, such as Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Spain, Poland Global abolition Later half of 19 century, dozens of countries abolish 1926- league of nations convention to suppress the slave trade and slavery UN universal declaration of human rights in 1945 ▯ New social movements Women’s Gay rights Anti nuclear Anti war Anti globalization Anti apartheid ▯ Anti Apartheid- South Africa – state of being apart. Literarily apart-hood ▯ ▯ History of apartheid SA racially segregated since colonial times After decolonization segregation was the official policy from 1948-94 Socially conservative national party outline o Pornography, gambling, abortion, homosexuality, sex education o Closed business on Sundays o Television not allowed until 1976. ▯ UN General assembly passed resolution, a non binding resolution establishing the UN special committee against apartheid and called for imposing economic and other sanctions of south Africa. All western nations refused to join the committee as members. Black South Africans lost citizenship rights People forced to identify with specific race Prohibits mixed marriages act Disenfranchised, overruled, voted out 1960= passbook protest and massacre o 18000 arrested. 69 killed o ▯ civil rights civil rights movement influenced activities in south Africa south African government cracked down increased oppression and state backed violence forced resettlement to group areas; 35 million moved from historic Sophia to south western townships (Soweto) ▯ Human rights era In the 1980’s pressure from the international community brought changes to south Africa International economic boycott began Apartheid reforms failed to quell the rebellion ▯ Apartheid is an example of global public sphere at work ▯ ▯ Movement and organization From early modern period social movements began to spawn new kinds of institutions Secular rather than religious Autonomous Transitional Explicit issue orientation Not for profit Non government ▯ Early NGO’s Freemason’s first grand lodge 1717 Pennsylvania abolition society 1775 KKK (post civil war) YMCA American Anti slavery society International red cross founded Universal Esperanto Association- QUIZ ▯ 1960’s the number of INGO’s explodes ▯ example- India- 3.3 million NGOs. No real record of the total number of local NGOs. ▯ Promises of NGO The NGO can be expression of public opinions NGOs can react to new kinds problems more quickly than government bureaucracy NGO can work across borders and deal with global issues NGO can watchdog governments and multinational corporations NGOs give donors choices. ▯ Drawbacks to NGOs Founding is dependent on philanthropy NGOs tied to current issues, media dependent Not necessarily tied to region, country, people Public attention (donations) change quickly How long does it take the tsunami in Japan to upstage the earthquake in Haiti? o 12 January 2010- Haiti o 11 March 2011-Japan Where is the long term commitment to Haiti? ▯ Limits to Capacity Huge portions of NGO budgets used to raise more money NGOs compete for same glamour issues, media attention, quick solutions Very important problems that are low glamor, long term, high cost, may get little attention NGOs can and do work at cross purposes o Economic development o Environmental protection o Indigenous rights Low pay, high turnover, lower effectiveness ▯ Funding NGOs Many thousands of NGOs are competing for public attention and donations Large donations come with strings, donors retain control and tie funds to certain uses Institutional fragmentation ▯ Structural limitations Not accountable in same way government or businesses Short term. Depend on volunteers Are funded by governments, not ordinary people Funds are redirected into NGOs ▯ NGOs as corporation Increasingly NGOs are founded by rich philanthropists and businesses, not ordinary people Rather than expressing public opinion corporate controlled NGOs do public relations work NGOs are increasingly being used to shape public opinion ▯ Lecture 15-Clash of civilizations ▯ Berlin wall 1989 comes down- puts an end to the whole bilateralism period of time ▯ Mikhail Gorbachev- Perestroika (restructuring), Glasnost (Openness) ▯ Post Cold War Moment End of soviet empire End of cold war that had organized world politics for 40 years Chinas economy has not yet been liberated Rise of the US/Europe as the dominant world powers (military and economic) Opportunity to unite the world Opportunity to re divide the world ▯ New market openings 14 soviet bloc nations abandon communism and suddenly become more open to the capitalist system o east Germany, Poland, Bulgaria, Ukraine 20 more soviet client states become fair game o Afghanistan, Angola, Congo, Cuba, etc postcolonial/imperial abandonment issues? Proxy wars ▯ Multilateralism global human rights As had been the case after WWII, during the 1990/s after the col war there was a upwelling of multilateral cooperation’s o Progress on AIDS crisis in Africa (10 years late) o Third world debt relief o Prosecution of genocidal dictators in Latin America ▯ But we also enter period of hyper globalization Neoliberal deregulation on global scale Multinational corps compete to exploit new opportunities and markets Hyper exploitation of natural resources and cheap global labor Offshoring of jobs to developing countries Unprecedented concentration of wealth Increased global inequality ▯ Margaret Thatcher Ronald Reagan identified with global economic ideology – neoliberalism ▯ ▯ Corporate global interest ▯ ▯ New global system Globalization and the new global economic system left many feeling adrift o Lack of global order o Huge increase in economic interdependence o Huge increases in intercultural contact o Decentering of nation- states o Rolling back of welfare system and rise of neoliberal economic policies and ideology o Post nation identity crisis o Loss of traditions and values o Massive global immigration ▯ Progressive backlash Eroding job security and reducing job quality at home Gross exploitation of labor abroad Reproducing national race/class/gender inequalities sin the wider economic system Global social movements o Sweatshop movement o Fair trade movement o WTO anti globalization protest in Seattle ▯ Conservative backlash Cultural wars, moral majority War on immigrants Rejection of cultural relativism, multiculturalism and affirmative action Re politicization of religion Return to religious fundamentalism Return to hyper nationalism Foreign policy shifts toward unilateralism ▯ Polarization of American society Polarization of politics at home with wedge issues, abortion, gay marriage, global warming ▯ G8- established 1975 The group of seven is a governmental forum of leading advanced economies in the world. It was originally formed by six leading industrial countries and subsequently extended with two additional members, one of which, Russia, is suspended. Since 2014, the G8 in effect compromises seven nations and the European union as the eighth member. Canada, France, Germany, Italy, US, UK, EU, Russia (suspended) o Suspended for the invasion of Ukraine ▯ G20- 1999 Group of 20, is an international forum for the governments and central bank governors from 20 major economies. The members and includes 19 individual countries, such as Argentina, Australia, brazil, japan, Mexico etc 85% of the world economy ▯ Polarization of global order Rejection of globalization/Americanization Collapse of the development paradigm Increasing inequality between nations Deep division within the UN and WTO G8 vs g20 vs the rest