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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Anahit Ghaltaghchyan on Friday August 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 3 at University of California Santa Barbara taught by Staff in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 42 views. For similar materials see Psych 3-Biopsychology in Psychlogy at University of California Santa Barbara.
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Date Created: 08/19/16
Neural reorganization Reorganization of primary sensory and motor systems has been observed in laboratory animals following damage to sensory receptors Ex lesion part of the retina o V1 neurons that originally respond to the lesioned area respond to adjacent area instead. Ramapping occurs within minutes ▯ Phantom Limbs: Neuroplastic phenomena Phantom libs syndrome is caused by reorganization of the somato sensory cortex following amputation The amputee feels a touch on his face and also on his phantom limb (due to their proximity on somatosensory cortex) Effects of sensory maniplations on sensory cortex maps o Cross modal rewriting experiments demonstrate the plasticity of sensory cortexes With visual input, the auditory cortex becomes organized retinotopiclaly o Change the input, and you can change the cortical Skill training also leads to reorganization of motor cortex Cant grow neurons. Gives every neuron something to do. Learning, Memory and Amnesia Learning vs Memory Learning Deals with how experience changes the brain o Where do these changes take place? o What kind of changes? Memory Deals with how these changes are stored (and later re activated) with the brain o Are there different types of memories? What distinguishes them? ▯ ▯ Learning is the process of Acquiring NEW INFORMATION, THE OUTCOME IS MEMORY. ▯ ▯ Unimodal models of memory Early psychology Memory is a single system along a continuum ▯ Ebbinghaus’ forgetting curve Tested himself as a self study Made up a list of nonsense words (new words that he can pronounce) and practiced trying to pronounce them, then measured how many he could recite after different periods of time Performance goes does with respect to time. Smooth decline Suggested that memory was one thing ▯ Modal models of memory Memory can be broken up into sensory memory, short term memory and long term memory Multiple, discrete systems ▯ Case study with HM HM was an epileptic who had his temporal lobes removed in 1953 His seizures were dramatically reduced but so was his long term memory HM experienced both mild retrograde amnesia and severe anterograde amnesia Retrograde amnesia- acts backwards. Unable to remember the past Anterograde (forward acting) unable to form new memories While HM was unable to form most types of new long term memories, his short term memory was intact o His remote memory (distance past events) was normal HM’s short term memory Digit span test= HM could repeat digits, provided that the time between learning and recall was within the duration of STM Block tapping memory span- This rest demonstrated that HM’s amnesia was global, not limited to one sensory modality o Like the game Simon o ▯ HM and implicit learning HM improved with practice on procedural tasks, all without recalling previous practice sessions. Things such as mirror drawing, rotary pursuit etc, he would get better at the task even though to him every single time he did it felt like the first time, which shows implicit learning because he unconsciously picked up on the task HM readily learned responses through classical conditioning, but had non memory of the conditioning trials ▯ Classical conditioning Implicit type of learning If you have a stimulus that produced a reaction, if you bring up an CS + US, then after a period of time the US will produce a CR. ▯ ▯ Explicit memories Declarative ▯ Implicit memories Non declarative ▯ Summary The medial temporal lobes are involved in memory STM and LTM are distinctly separate o HM was unable to move memories from STM to LTM, a problem with memory consolidation Memory may exist but not be recalled= as when HM exhibited a skill he did not know he had learned (explicit vs implicit memories) ▯ Medial Temporal Lobe Amnesia Not all patients with this form of amnesia are unable to form new explicit long term memories o Semantic memory (general information, facts) may function while episodic memory (events that one has experienced) may not Medial temporal lobe amnesiacs may also have trouble imagining future events ▯ Mechanisms of Consolidation and Retrieval MTL structures, specifically the hippocampus, are involved in consolidation o Morris Water Maze Rats learned where the platform was Then administered a drug to disable hippocampus temporarily (7 days) Rats forgot where the platform was Also involved in retrieval o Morris water Maze Rats learned where the platform was After 7 days rats were given drug to inhibit hippocampus just before testing Rats forgot where the platform was ▯ Once a memory is old enough, memories are retrieved from somewhere else because HM did not have a hippocampus yet he could retrieve information about his life up to the last few weeks before surgery ▯