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by: Melanie Wright
Melanie Wright

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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Melanie Wright on Friday August 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to at University of Southern Mississippi taught by in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views.


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Date Created: 08/19/16
Europe in the High Middle Ages  Rising importance of cities o Medieval cities  Small in size  Densely packed cities  Chartered, and outside normal feudal structure  Most of inhabitants were free  Didn’t owe feudal dues as long as taxes were paid o Mostly self­governing  Prominent men ran for public office; people within town were responsible  for choosing these officials; not necessarily the king o Regulated moral behavior  Towns were responsible for how their citizens behaved o Major production centers  Guilds  Association of people engaged in the same trade/profession  o Regulated professional skills and manufacturing  o Block certain members from selling their goods (bad  quality, etc) o Tended to control manufacturing in their towns  Shoe maker could not just set up shop and start  selling without approval from guild; and could stop  them from selling their goods o Held standards for training (apprenticeships)  like a skill building college o Medieval Florence  One of the key centers of trade in Europe o Medieval Trade Innovations  Banking  Arose during the crusade  Those who would travel to the Holy Land would deposit money to  Templars at Commanderies (sp); Templars would then give the  traveler a piece of parchment with how much money, and when  and where it took place; once arrived at the Holy Land, the traveler can redeem that parchment for their money back; this becomes an  early form of checkings   Made transactions easier  Partnerships  Several investors pool their money together to afford certain  ventures, projects, etc`  Minimized financial risks  Insurance   Is betting something bad won’t happen o Essentially betting that transported good will make it to  their destination safely; if not, insurer has to pay back the  goods lost; if successful, insurer gains profit from initial  insurance bet  Sailor has $50,000 worth of goods and gets  insurance; insurer bets $5,000 that goods will make  it there safely. If safe, insurer gets five thousand; if  lost, insurer pays sailor $50,000 for loss of goods  Magnetic compass spread across from Europe (originally from Song  China) o Centralization of royal power  Kings started to centralize power again  Previously power was mostly held by those in the town due to the  rampage of Vikings throughout western EU; citizens ran to local  peoples in power instead of kings because they responded to the  problems faster and more efficiently than the kings would  After 1000 CE or so, Kings strengthened their power over vassals, etc by  Divine sanction o Kings argued that they had divine sanction; kings are  crowned and anointed with holy oil; they are anointed by  holy priests in a holy place through a holy process; thus  they are chosen to be king (I am king because God wants  me to be king)   Recognition from Catholic Church o Respected churches and their hierarchy, in return the kings  received recognition from the church  Center of Feudal System o Kings were the center of feudal system o If a vassal gave a king trouble, they could rely on another  of their vassals to cause conflict o Kings had overall control of the land regardless who uses  or “owns” the land o The French and the English had a constant power struggle over France for many  years  It is not until the end of the 100 Years War that the French gain potentially all control of France   Only a very small portion of northern France is owned by the  English at this point o In the Holy Roman Empire (Germany, Switzerland, etc)  The princes dominated in power until the last descendant of Charlemagne  passed in which they elected a new emperor, Henry of Saxon  These nobles did not want the procession of emperors to be  hereditary, but elected  They did not want to elect a ruler who was so strong that it would  knock them out of power and make the rights to emperor  hereditary  Even though the next emperors that rule after Henry were  descendants from him, they were all elected to be emperor; not  received by birthright   7 Nobles who elected new emperors o Arch Bishop of Cologne o Arch Bishop of Trier o Arch Bishop of Mainz o Count of Paletine o Duke of Brandenburg o Duke of Saxony o King of Bohemia  Church becomes entangled in vassalage relationships  Those obligations bared down on church  Vassals of secular lords were simultaneously representative princes of the church as well as great princes of the Holy Roman Empire o These peoples became more concerned with their affairs  outside of the church than within o Church becomes increasingly corrupt o England  Henry II of England  Regularized collection of taxes  Reformed court system in England  More court cases attended to by the king instead of the feudal lords  Enlists judges to travel around England to hear cases eventually  this leads to the creation of the Common Law – which is the legal  system used mostly in the U.S.  Tried to impose will unto Catholic Church (was not successful)  Pushed Canterbury Archbishop, Thomas Becket, to try clergymen  in royal courts for crimes o Thomas Becket  Becket resisted Henry’s idea  Only tried clergymen in ecclesiastical courts  (church courts)   Kings and feudal lords did not like this since church courts were particularly lenient on  their punishments  Becket was murdered by four knights in his own  church  Deeply offended the Church  Henry has to do damage control and had to  give in on the royal courts vs church courts  issue


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