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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Melanie Wright on Friday August 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to at University of Southern Mississippi taught by in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views.
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Date Created: 08/19/16
Europe in the High Middle Ages Rising importance of cities o Medieval cities Small in size Densely packed cities Chartered, and outside normal feudal structure Most of inhabitants were free Didn’t owe feudal dues as long as taxes were paid o Mostly selfgoverning Prominent men ran for public office; people within town were responsible for choosing these officials; not necessarily the king o Regulated moral behavior Towns were responsible for how their citizens behaved o Major production centers Guilds Association of people engaged in the same trade/profession o Regulated professional skills and manufacturing o Block certain members from selling their goods (bad quality, etc) o Tended to control manufacturing in their towns Shoe maker could not just set up shop and start selling without approval from guild; and could stop them from selling their goods o Held standards for training (apprenticeships) like a skill building college o Medieval Florence One of the key centers of trade in Europe o Medieval Trade Innovations Banking Arose during the crusade Those who would travel to the Holy Land would deposit money to Templars at Commanderies (sp); Templars would then give the traveler a piece of parchment with how much money, and when and where it took place; once arrived at the Holy Land, the traveler can redeem that parchment for their money back; this becomes an early form of checkings Made transactions easier Partnerships Several investors pool their money together to afford certain ventures, projects, etc` Minimized financial risks Insurance Is betting something bad won’t happen o Essentially betting that transported good will make it to their destination safely; if not, insurer has to pay back the goods lost; if successful, insurer gains profit from initial insurance bet Sailor has $50,000 worth of goods and gets insurance; insurer bets $5,000 that goods will make it there safely. If safe, insurer gets five thousand; if lost, insurer pays sailor $50,000 for loss of goods Magnetic compass spread across from Europe (originally from Song China) o Centralization of royal power Kings started to centralize power again Previously power was mostly held by those in the town due to the rampage of Vikings throughout western EU; citizens ran to local peoples in power instead of kings because they responded to the problems faster and more efficiently than the kings would After 1000 CE or so, Kings strengthened their power over vassals, etc by Divine sanction o Kings argued that they had divine sanction; kings are crowned and anointed with holy oil; they are anointed by holy priests in a holy place through a holy process; thus they are chosen to be king (I am king because God wants me to be king) Recognition from Catholic Church o Respected churches and their hierarchy, in return the kings received recognition from the church Center of Feudal System o Kings were the center of feudal system o If a vassal gave a king trouble, they could rely on another of their vassals to cause conflict o Kings had overall control of the land regardless who uses or “owns” the land o The French and the English had a constant power struggle over France for many years It is not until the end of the 100 Years War that the French gain potentially all control of France Only a very small portion of northern France is owned by the English at this point o In the Holy Roman Empire (Germany, Switzerland, etc) The princes dominated in power until the last descendant of Charlemagne passed in which they elected a new emperor, Henry of Saxon These nobles did not want the procession of emperors to be hereditary, but elected They did not want to elect a ruler who was so strong that it would knock them out of power and make the rights to emperor hereditary Even though the next emperors that rule after Henry were descendants from him, they were all elected to be emperor; not received by birthright 7 Nobles who elected new emperors o Arch Bishop of Cologne o Arch Bishop of Trier o Arch Bishop of Mainz o Count of Paletine o Duke of Brandenburg o Duke of Saxony o King of Bohemia Church becomes entangled in vassalage relationships Those obligations bared down on church Vassals of secular lords were simultaneously representative princes of the church as well as great princes of the Holy Roman Empire o These peoples became more concerned with their affairs outside of the church than within o Church becomes increasingly corrupt o England Henry II of England Regularized collection of taxes Reformed court system in England More court cases attended to by the king instead of the feudal lords Enlists judges to travel around England to hear cases eventually this leads to the creation of the Common Law – which is the legal system used mostly in the U.S. Tried to impose will unto Catholic Church (was not successful) Pushed Canterbury Archbishop, Thomas Becket, to try clergymen in royal courts for crimes o Thomas Becket Becket resisted Henry’s idea Only tried clergymen in ecclesiastical courts (church courts) Kings and feudal lords did not like this since church courts were particularly lenient on their punishments Becket was murdered by four knights in his own church Deeply offended the Church Henry has to do damage control and had to give in on the royal courts vs church courts issue
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