Geology 1014, Human Affairs
Geology 1014, Human Affairs GEOL 1014 - 0-61920
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GEOL 1014 - 0-61920
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ann McCarty on Friday August 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEOL 1014 - 0-61920 at Oklahoma State University taught by Priyank Jaiswal in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Geology and Human Affairs Lecture in Geology at Oklahoma State University.
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Date Created: 08/19/16
Geology 1014 CH: 1 Intro to Geology 8.15.16 1) Intro. A. What is important about Geology? Answer: it shapes Society - EX: it takes 3 or more rivers to be able to grow crops for other countries as well as to sustain their own within that specific area. - Geology of a country decides how wealthy, stable, etc. it is. - EX: Easter Island: 1. it's a small island. Today it is popular because of the head statues. There were no people found there when it was discovered. 2. The theory says that it became over populated. 3. Resources became exhausted. The only way to get fresh water was for it to rain. Finally, there was a struggle over how the land was to be used. 4. ppl left/died in wars over resources. 5. Why?: because soils were not nourished by the ash, and rats were introduced to the environ. that ate the palm tree seeds. There was also no nearby coral reefs to provide fish as food. B. Themes: 1. How ppl and Earth interact 2. How Earth systems interact w/ each other. 3. How science helps ppl to understand and deal w/ issues related to Earth. 4. How ppl can take steps to achieve a sustainable future. - it's a process. What is a process?: - Climate Cng 1. Earth Materials 2. Hazards 3. Land Use planning and environ impact. 4. Hydrologic process 2) Environmental (environ) Geology: - Environ: complex of climatic, geologic, and biotic factors that alter upon organism/ecological community and which determines it’s for and survival potential. -Physical environ: rocks, soil, air, water, light, temp, etc. - Human Environ: individuals, society, political systems, commerce, industry, Transportation systems, nature, etc. - Environ Geology: application of Geologic principles to the challenges created by human occupancy and exploitation of ways in which Geologic processes and hazards influence environ. activities and sometimes reverses things. 3) Model of Natural Disasters - how humans and natural disasters cometogether: - Green area: natural world and natural events: earthquakes, volcanoes, floods, hurricanes, sea lvl rising. -Red area: disasters: econ loss and fatalities. - Yellow area: pop density increasing 4) Import. Concepts in Geology. - Geology (1014) in science: it's a story set in time Red: dates and names, Blue: definitions, Orange: EX, Purple: pg#, Yellow: answers to questions, Green: relating to math or equations, other colors are related to what is being talked about. Geology 1014 CH: 1 Intro to Geology - It is also a study of rocks, but it is a study of what rocks can tell us about what was going on at the time it was being formed. Therefore: rocks are a story in time. - Geologic systems and living organisms have interacted over long periods of Geological Time. - This happened in order to produce an inhabitable planet. - Human activities have potential to degrade habitability of earth systems, by disrupting natural cycles. 5) Sustainable Development: - Development which meets needs of present w/o compromising ability of future generations to meet their needs. 6) Carrying Capacity: - Lg # of any given species that a habitat can support indefinitely w/o environ. damage. - Est. of global carrying capacity rt. Fr. Under 7 bil. To over 100 bil. On assumptions that are made. Present projections are that pop. Will reach 9 bil. By 2050. - It depends on how geology grows and how humans impact effects it. 7) Habitability on a planetary scale. - Blue zone: if sun was bigger, earth would fry. 8.16.16 LAB NOTES: I will put lab notes, if any, in the notes with the class so that you don't have to go looking for them. - Layers panel: earth is broken up into: litho, bio, hydro, and atmosphere. - If you cant get your google maps to work right, check what you have checked in your panels. 8.17.16 1) Case History: Island of Hispania - good site for comparative study: Dominican Republic v. Haiti. - Biophysical difference: rainfall, topography, land use/cover. - Socioeconomic diff: History, pop., econ activities, GDP output. -Main Reasons for degradation of Haiti’s environ and subsequent inability to quickly rebuild after 2010 lg earthquake. - Table 1.1 (pg 6) has overview of these differences btwn Domin. Rep., Puerto Rico, Cuba and Haiti. 2) Earth’s place in space - Earth Geospatially isolated in universe. - Origin of Earth System: Lithosphere, at Hyrdo and Biosphere. - Facing limited resources: Energy, soil, freshmater, forests, oceans, fisheries, rangelands. - Global environ: conflicts and integrated resolutions. *Watch video over how earth was formed, or what philosophers say. - 5 bil yrs ago. - nebula began due to gravity. - Rotation began in a disk like track. - center becomes sun (proto star) - particles began to harden, creating asteroids. Red: dates and names, Blue: definitions, Orange: EX, Purple: pg#, Yellow: answers to questions, Green: relating to math or equations, other colors are related to what is being talked about. Geology 1014 CH: 1 Intro to Geology - Inception: 4.6 bil yrs ago. -pg 10: map of geology in time: Precambrian, Paleozoic, Mesozoic, Cenozoic, 3) Earth Environment: - James Hutton (1785): Earth as a Superorganism: some system that works together. - James Lovelock: Giria hypothesis. - Earth is orgamism - Life significance affects earths environ. - EX: beavers, anything that moves. - Life modifies environ for betterment of life. - animals cng environ. so its healthy for them, humans are the same. - however, plants and animals differ from humans due to not having power to produce smtng that isn’t natural (manmade products). In other words, it takes a catastrophe to undo smtng humans do. - Life deliberately/ consciously controls global environ. - it is selfish, it wants what it wants. - Interdisciplinary thinking. - Earth: dynamic, alive and complex. - Everything is alive, with a beginning and an end. This rule applies to everything. - Prolong Earths sustainable healthy life. This includes everything, and it lets it sustain itself. -Eviron monitoring. - Eviron. Challenges: mapping and analysis. - mapping: charting what is there, in time and space. -Eviron. Challenge prevention and protection. 4) Environ. Sciences: - Environ: a complex system, w/ physical, bio, geological, ecological and geopolitical aspects. - It is fair to put all together: yes: its all realted. No: bc ppl want to do w/ their land as they would. - Requires multidisciplinary research: Environ. geology, Environ. chemistry, Global climate cng, biological diversity and ecosystems, environ. economics, environ. ethics, environ laws, etc. - Environ. crisis: pop., environ. hazards, resource limitations and contaminations, environ. ownership (in space and time) - depends on where you are and what you believe to be a contaminate. -EX: oil spills were origionally thought to be bad, but resulted in a fish pop increase. -EX: arsenic contamination: this is actually bad. 5) Environ. Geology: - Environ geology: applied geology, able to test w/in a short amnt of time and get results. - Environ. geology knowledge: - better understand environ challenges - geologic knowledge for solving challenges. - minimize environ degradation. - optimize use of resources to maximize environ benefits for society. Red: dates and names, Blue: definitions, Orange: EX, Purple: pg#, Yellow: answers to questions, Green: relating to math or equations, other colors are related to what is being talked about. Geology 1014 CH: 1 Intro to Geology - Earth source for habitats and resources, waste disposal, environ. and health issues. - better understand natural bazards - land and water resources, use, planning and managing. - 1014 aspect in every environ condition. 6) Fundamental concepts: - 5 fund. Concepts: - pop. Growth - sustainability: system and cng how systems cng over time (natural 1014 cycle.) -hazardous earth processes -scientific knowledge and values: How are these related? -other import. Concepts in environ. 1014: -finite resources, obligation to future: wanting to leave smtng for future generations. 8.19.16 1) Human Pop. Growth: - #1 environ. challenge: nearly 7 bil by yr 2010. - “pop. Bomb”?: meaning X^2 growth. - because of how many ppl there are, 1 becomes 2, 2 becomes 4, 4 becomes 8, etc. -there are a lot of ppl living under poor conditions. *comparing 4 countries (pg14) -what causes pop growth? -EX: edu. At early age in developing and developed countries. - Exponential growth - Growth rt (G): measured as % - Doubling time (D): D= 70/G - Above earths comfortable carrying capacity: use more resources, need more land-space, generate more waste. -Earth is only suitable habitat in the foreseeable future. -The constant question is: is the pop about to explode?? -This leads to uneven growing pace and distribution. -By 2050, there will be 3 bil more ppl. -types of life styles and expectation of living. -EX: Japans pop is negative. -EX: China and the 1 child rule rejected die to need for the younger workers to support the older generations, but there was a smaller number of new gens. -Almost all of growth is in developing countries. - There are no easy answers to the pop challenges. -Edu. Is paramount, especially woman’s edu. As ppl become more educated, pop growth rt tends to decrease. - women need to be edu. If women are in college, then they are less likely to have kids when they are in college. Another reason that women are waiting until they are out of college to have kids is so that they can be more mature and have more knowledge of how the world works. -Good news: rt of pop growth is decreasing over all. Red: dates and names, Blue: definitions, Orange: EX, Purple: pg#, Yellow: answers to questions, Green: relating to math or equations, other colors are related to what is being talked about. Geology 1014 CH: 1 Intro to Geology -it isn’t about the rt itself, but being mindful of it. 2) Sustainability: environ objective: - evolving concept. - expectation v. reality. - criterial variation in space and over time. - is long term concept and has long term implications. - requiring careful resources allocation, lg-scale development of new technology for resource use recycling and waste disposal. 3) Measuring sustainability: - use and consumption of non- renewable resources. - natural replenishment of non-renewable rts. -global consumption v. replenishment of resources. - development and improvement of human environ. v. viable environ. - It doesn't lead to environ. crisis. 4) The death of Aral sea. - once a prosperous vacation spot in 1960. - water diversion for agriculture. - dying sea surrounded by salt flats. - it is lgly irreversible. - it was exploited, and the land was killed. 5) Earths systems and cngs: - system conditions: open v. closed. - system input, out put analysis. - system cngs: types of cng, rts of cng, scales of cngs etc. - rts of cng: average residence time: - T= S/F, where T: residence time, S: total size of stock, F: average rt of transfer. - Earth dynamic system: smtng that cngs. - 4 interconnected systems: litho, bio, hydro, and atmosphere. All 4 exist where humans are: surface - 4 subsystems are interconnected and interdependent. - Present human activity is key to understanding future. 6) Predicting future cngs: - uniformitarianism: closed system -present is key to past - present is key to future. - cngs of frequency and magnitude: Geological processes and human activities. - Environ. unity: chain of Xn and rxn. - Earth system: - Gaiahypothesis: Earth is a living organism. - Complex and interrelated subsystems. - global perspective on environ. j 7) Hazardous Earth Processes and risk stats for 20 yrs. - Annual loss of life: about 150,000. - gone down due to better warning systems. - financial loss: > $20 bil, and nothing can be done about this. Red: dates and names, Blue: definitions, Orange: EX, Purple: pg#, Yellow: answers to questions, Green: relating to math or equations, other colors are related to what is being talked about. Geology 1014 CH: 1 Intro to Geology - Mill of life loss during past 20 yrs, particularly to catastrophic fr. Majo natural disasters in developing countries (’03: Iran quake, ~30,000 ppl, ’04 Asia tsunami, ~300,000 ppl) - more property damage occurs in more developed places. - due to there being more stuff that is in these places that can be damaged. Things that are man-made are more prone to damage than the natural world bc technology isn’t as good as nature itself. 8) Scientific Knowledge and Values: - 3-D environ. challenges. - cngs of environ. - cngs of environ. in the 4-D (time) - Expansiveness of geologic time - broad spectrum of geologic processes - great variations in rts of geologic processes. - scientific method for complex environ. challenges. 9) Science and Solution: - Science: accumulated knowledge - Knowledge: basic for decision making. - scientific method: formulate possible solution to environ. challenges. - Scientific design: structure more suitable for certain environ. settings. - Scientific info: public awareness and environ. regulation. 10) Scientific Knowledge and Values (pg27) - get soil, bring to lab form hypothesis (make an assumption) -EX: dirt is red bc: iron - test and get results: yes v. no. - you have to be objective, and keep going until every assumption has been proved. 11) Closer look: knowledge imagination and critical thinking - knowledge: what is known - imagination: no limits, leading to out-of-the-box thinking of unknown. - scientific investigation: needs critical thinking. - Critical thinking: Significance, logic, flow, relevance, breadth and depth, clarity, fair test. 12) Geological Time Dimension: - Impart variable that distinguishes 1014 fr. Other sciences. - varied rt of Geological process: mm/yr to km/s. Red: dates and names, Blue: definitions, Orange: EX, Purple: pg#, Yellow: answers to questions, Green: relating to math or equations, other colors are related to what is being talked about.