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Public Health Concepts, Week 4

by: Samantha Notetaker

Public Health Concepts, Week 4 PHC4101

Marketplace > University of Florida > Epidemiology > PHC4101 > Public Health Concepts Week 4
Samantha Notetaker
GPA 3.8
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About this Document

These notes cover chapter 5 which is what we need to know for the quiz this week.
Public Health Concepts
Deepthi Varma
Class Notes




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Samantha Notetaker on Saturday August 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PHC4101 at University of Florida taught by Deepthi Varma in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 74 views. For similar materials see Public Health Concepts in Epidemiology at University of Florida.


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Date Created: 08/20/16
Public Health Concepts Chapter 5: Epidemiologic Principles and Methods Risk Factors Epidemiology studies how diseases occur and spread within populations  Some diseases are worse than others and tests must be done to determine if a person has something simple like a really bad stomach ache or something worse like pancreatic cancer. Keeping track of the WHO, WHEN, and WHERE is really important to determine if a disease is only happening to certain types of people or only in certain areas. (frequency)  Measures of frequency – incidence rates and prevalence rates and death rates o Incidence – shows the rate at which a disease starts to pop up and helps with finding cause o Prevalence – shows the rates of diseases that are already present (especially chronic diseases); helps with healthcare plans o Death rates – measures frequency of deathly diseases WHO – age, sex, race, economic status WHEN – any trends? Seasonal maybe? WHERE – countries, states, counties, geographical regions, specific places WHAT? WHAT is causing a disease to start? WHAT is causing a disease to spread? Questions are the beginning of finding out about diseases and how to help those who have them and help prevent other people from getting them Observe ! Kinds of Epidemiologic Studies Descriptive epidemiology – asking questions to find causes and sources of epidemic To be prospective or to be retrospective? that is the question. From the present We’re gonna go back. In. time! to the future! Intervention Studies Experiments! One group is exposed and the other is a control group (not exposed) Placebo - inactive agent (the fake stuff) sometimes given to the control group  Makes people think they got the real stuff to see if they act any different just by the thought of having a treatment Clinical trials that make the best case!  Randomized – people are randomly placed in either the experiment group or control group  Double blind – nobody knows anything about who is getting what. Not the doctor. Not the patient. The FDA (Food and Drug Administration) must approve of every trial before it starts Example! Polio vaccine trial  Jonas Salk made it  400,000 children from different schools in different states were all either given the vaccine or a placebo  Conclusion: Many less children got sick if they had the vaccine. Therefore, Polio vaccine for the WIN!  Now Polio almost doesn’t even exist anymore. Thanks Mr. Salk! Cohort Studies Cohort – a group of people with common characteristics  Large group of healthy people  Asked about exposure and then observed to see what happens  OR conduct an experiment where one group is exposed and the other control Example!  120,000 married female nurses  Sent in questionnaires about lifestyle  Determined 50% more risk of breast cancer for nurses Fun fact: It was found that oral contraceptives increase the risk of breast cancer Relative risk – rate of exposed compared to rate of not exposed (based off a greater than, less than, or equal to 1.0) Case Control Studies Starts with people who are already sick   Back track their exposure  Better than cohort studies (smaller groups) Example! Reye’s syndrome  Looked at children who already had the disease  Looked at children who didn’t have the disease, but had chicken pox  Asked about what medications the child had taken The culprit? …………… ASPIRIN! So basically epidemiology is super important and gives people a lot of useful information that can protect us from some pretty serious stuff.


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