Week of August 14 - genetics
Week of August 14 - genetics BIOL 3000
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emma Shoupe on Saturday August 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 3000 at Auburn University taught by Seibenhener in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Genetics in Biology at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 08/20/16
BIOL 3000- Genetics Dr. Seibenhener Week of August 14 – August 19 History of Genetics Human observation – how we use animals and plants to improve our daily lives Science and society – how science can shape our ideas 10,000 – 6,000 years ago – domestication of animals (dogs, gazelles) 6,000 – 5,000 years ago – camels, reindeer 10,000 years ago – Fertile Crescent – domestication of plants (cereal grains, silos, date palms) o some type of breeding going on o irrigation rather than hunter/gatherer Theories of Heredity spontaneous generation – “living structures form without descent from similar organisms” o Aristotle o Christianity o Shakespeare o Jean Babtist van Helmont – “how to make a mouse” o Pasteur – “swan neck experiment” Preformationism – 1600s – “organisms develop from miniature versions of themselves” o 1651 – oovism – William Harvey – “On generation of Animals” all animals come from eggs o 1677 – spermism – Leeuwenhoek observed sperm o 1694 – Hartsoeker produced Homunculus – tiny human form curled up inside the sperm Pangenesis – 1800s – theory holds that body cells and structures shed small pieces of themselves which collect in reproductive organs prior to fertilization o Darwin – “Gemmules” Did not like pangenesis – no experimental evidence o Blended inheritance Inherited traits are determined randomly from a range defined by 2 parents o “Acquired characteristics” Lamarckism – an organism can pass characteristics it has acquired throughout its lifetime along to its offspring Use v. disuse Theories of evolution by Natural Selection – how inherited biological traits become more or less common in a population over time as a function of how successful the trait is in interacting with the environment o Kettlewell – moth experiment Pangenesis and natural selection do not work together Disproval of Lamarckism – inheritance of acquired characteristics o Rat Tail Mutilation Experiments – Weismann Epigenesis – 1800 – 2016 - theory that embryo is not preformed in ovum or sperm, but it develops gradually by successive formation of new parts o “nothing physical is passed to offspring, however information to form different parts is passed” o epigenetics – after 8 weeks, environmental factors can alter gene identity Gregor Mendel pea experiment; blended inheritance Mendel’s law of inheritance o Dominant and recessive Johannson Termed word “gene” – raw material of heritability Genetics – branch of biology dealing with heredity and expression Heredity – transmission of traits from one generation to next o Dominant/recessive o Modes of inheritance o DNA; chromosomes o Heritability – important because of 10,000 genetic disorders Expression – once you get genetic material, how do you convert into phenotypic character o Central dogma – DNA, RNA, protein o Genetic processing o Mutations o Gene regulation o Differences in gene expression can correlate with drug response or disease risk o Genes are instruction or recipe books for making proteins Improve medicines and treatments
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