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Chapter 3.1 Notes

by: Christina Ha

Chapter 3.1 Notes PSYC 1101

Christina Ha
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About this Document

This is a summary of the notes we took on Wednesday, 8/31/2016.
Elementary Psychology
Kara A. Dyckman
Class Notes




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Christina Ha on Saturday August 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 1101 at University of Georgia taught by Kara A. Dyckman in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 71 views. For similar materials see Elementary Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Georgia.

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Date Created: 08/20/16
08/31/2016 Chapter 3 Sensation and Perception  Sensation: the process where your receptors in your sensory organs (eyes, ears, nose, skin, mouth, etc) o Organs that have contact with the environment (touch, sound wave, light,  odor molecule) receive and detect stimuli. The physical energy from the  outside world is hitting your sensory detectors (getting it in)  Perception: how you organize, interpret, and transform that information into  something meaningful o Your perception is NOT just an exact copy of what is out there. It is your  interpretation. Your situation can also affect the way that you feel things. o The perception part takes a little longer than sensation. o Your perception is not real. It's what you see through your eyes. You think  that you are seeing something exactly the way you think it is (based on  experiences and what you feel is important to you) o Every perception that you have is a creation. The Basics: Transduction 1. Sensory input from environment. 2. Translated into electrical and chemical signals of neurons. 3. Through TRANSDUCTION 4. Neural signals processed by nervous system. 5. Resulting in SENSATION (At this point, our brain registers the sensory input; the  signal has gone from our sensory organs to our nervous system.) 6. Sensations assigned meaning. 7. Through PERCEPTION (It is not until this point that we have interpreted the  sensations that we experienced.)  You can be looking at the exact same stimulus, but you can have a different  perception about it based on your experience. o Combination of your actual experience (physical stimulus that's there) and  your own memories, expectations, experiences. o Ex: Black and white/ Blue and gold dress; different factors influence what  you see: how you see the light hitting the dress, shadow, etc Data­based vs. Knowledge­based  Data­based processing: How the brain takes basic sensory information and  processes the incoming stimuli  o In other words, taking the basic sensory info from your environment o Ex: orientation of lines in a figure o Also called bottom­up processing  Knowledge­based processing: Using your own past experiences and knowledge  to help you understand sensory information.  o Ex: past experience viewing men or rats (Example from class) o Also called top­down processing Measuring Human Sensation  Absolute threshold: weakest/minimum amount of stimulus that can be detected  50% of the time Sensory Adaptation  Sensory adaptation: Sensory receptors become less sensitive to constant stimuli  over time. Examples:  o Air freshener/ Perfume/ Cologne (You smell it really strongly right when  you spray it, but you don’t even notice it after a few minutes) o A clock (Constant ticking; not aware of it unless you really pay attention.) o Jumping into a cold pool (At first, it’s freezing. After a while, you’re  oblivious to the frigid temperature.) o Pressure such as a rubber band/ hair tie around one’s wrist (Because the  pressure remains constant, you won’t notice anything because it's been  there for a while.) o Contact lenses/ braces (When you first put them in, you feel it. After time,  you adapt.) o Sound like the hum of refrigerator (You don't notice it until the humming  sound turns off.)   Difference Thresholds  Difference Thresholds: Minimum difference between two stimuli noticed 50% of  the time. It is different for different senses and properties. o Synonym: JND (just noticeable difference)  Weber's Law­ It is not an absolute amount; it is a ratio.  Ratio (for weight­ 2% difference to detect) Example: o What is the ratio (the difference between two objects) of the difference to  the amount of weight that you were lifting first?  For instance, there are two envelopes and each had a quarter in them.  You put another quarter into one of the envelopes. You are going to feel  the difference because you have now doubled the weight. Remember that  in this case, the weight that you are lifting is very small. o Auditory stimulation (How much do you have to turn the radio up for the  person to notice that the sound has increased?) o Light (How can you tell when one light is brighter than the other?)  You have to determine how sensitive the criteria is going to be to say that you  have detected something that is there vs things that are not. Sensory Detection Theory­you­think­your­phone­is­vibrating­when­it­is­not/


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