Chapter 3.1 Notes
Chapter 3.1 Notes PSYC 1101
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Christina Ha on Saturday August 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 1101 at University of Georgia taught by Kara A. Dyckman in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 71 views. For similar materials see Elementary Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 08/20/16
08/31/2016 Chapter 3 Sensation and Perception Sensation: the process where your receptors in your sensory organs (eyes, ears, nose, skin, mouth, etc) o Organs that have contact with the environment (touch, sound wave, light, odor molecule) receive and detect stimuli. The physical energy from the outside world is hitting your sensory detectors (getting it in) Perception: how you organize, interpret, and transform that information into something meaningful o Your perception is NOT just an exact copy of what is out there. It is your interpretation. Your situation can also affect the way that you feel things. o The perception part takes a little longer than sensation. o Your perception is not real. It's what you see through your eyes. You think that you are seeing something exactly the way you think it is (based on experiences and what you feel is important to you) o Every perception that you have is a creation. The Basics: Transduction 1. Sensory input from environment. 2. Translated into electrical and chemical signals of neurons. 3. Through TRANSDUCTION 4. Neural signals processed by nervous system. 5. Resulting in SENSATION (At this point, our brain registers the sensory input; the signal has gone from our sensory organs to our nervous system.) 6. Sensations assigned meaning. 7. Through PERCEPTION (It is not until this point that we have interpreted the sensations that we experienced.) You can be looking at the exact same stimulus, but you can have a different perception about it based on your experience. o Combination of your actual experience (physical stimulus that's there) and your own memories, expectations, experiences. o Ex: Black and white/ Blue and gold dress; different factors influence what you see: how you see the light hitting the dress, shadow, etc Databased vs. Knowledgebased Databased processing: How the brain takes basic sensory information and processes the incoming stimuli o In other words, taking the basic sensory info from your environment o Ex: orientation of lines in a figure o Also called bottomup processing Knowledgebased processing: Using your own past experiences and knowledge to help you understand sensory information. o Ex: past experience viewing men or rats (Example from class) o Also called topdown processing Measuring Human Sensation Absolute threshold: weakest/minimum amount of stimulus that can be detected 50% of the time Sensory Adaptation Sensory adaptation: Sensory receptors become less sensitive to constant stimuli over time. Examples: o Air freshener/ Perfume/ Cologne (You smell it really strongly right when you spray it, but you don’t even notice it after a few minutes) o A clock (Constant ticking; not aware of it unless you really pay attention.) o Jumping into a cold pool (At first, it’s freezing. After a while, you’re oblivious to the frigid temperature.) o Pressure such as a rubber band/ hair tie around one’s wrist (Because the pressure remains constant, you won’t notice anything because it's been there for a while.) o Contact lenses/ braces (When you first put them in, you feel it. After time, you adapt.) o Sound like the hum of refrigerator (You don't notice it until the humming sound turns off.) Difference Thresholds Difference Thresholds: Minimum difference between two stimuli noticed 50% of the time. It is different for different senses and properties. o Synonym: JND (just noticeable difference) Weber's Law It is not an absolute amount; it is a ratio. Ratio (for weight 2% difference to detect) Example: o What is the ratio (the difference between two objects) of the difference to the amount of weight that you were lifting first? For instance, there are two envelopes and each had a quarter in them. You put another quarter into one of the envelopes. You are going to feel the difference because you have now doubled the weight. Remember that in this case, the weight that you are lifting is very small. o Auditory stimulation (How much do you have to turn the radio up for the person to notice that the sound has increased?) o Light (How can you tell when one light is brighter than the other?) You have to determine how sensitive the criteria is going to be to say that you have detected something that is there vs things that are not. Sensory Detection Theory https://mindhacks.com/2013/07/16/whyyouthinkyourphoneisvibratingwhenitisnot/
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