History Week 8
History Week 8 History 241
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katie Truppo on Saturday August 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 241 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Robert Bast in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Western civilization in History at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.
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Date Created: 08/20/16
World History 241 10.6.2015 Unit 4 Lecture 2 (continued) D. Violence: an Accepted Tool for Social and Political Change --The Reforms of Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus Violence became acceptable tool for political change Gaius Gracchus was grandson of great Roman general Concerned about plight of poor Tiberius believed problems were related to and distribution Proposed land redistribution program of newly conquered lands Redistribute to veterans and families, keep 325 acres Reduce urban crime and poverty Legislation was vetoed, made ﬁery appeals to constituency for bill and re- election Senatorial families hired slaves to beat Tiberius to death and killed supporters Gaius attempts to continue Tiberius’s work and is also killed III. Government by Warlords: Marius and Sulla Roman military command becomes political weapon as well King Jugurtha (Modern Libya) kingdom of Lumidia Declared independence and fought wars with Rome Marius was console most times in history (7) Recruited soldiers among landless poor, promise after military career he will give them land Gained power through conquests and command of soldiers/old school values Develops rivalry with Sulla (Jugurtha surrendered to him instead of Marius) Sulla was corrupt aristocrat (spoiled) Love of his life was Matrovius (transvestite actor) Adopts Marius strategy of employing landless poor for army 90 BCE Both want to be in charge of latest war campaign Sulla won, Marius tried to convince/bribe to change Senate resends decree and appoints Marius Sulla’s soldiers invade Rome and kill Marius supporters, Marius escapes and recruits army Marius returns to Rome and kills Sulla’s supporters Marius named console for 7th time, dies 1 week later of natural causes 83 BCE: Sulla returns and goes on campaign of terror Proscription: dictator or tyrannt posts lists of enemy of the state Day 1: Sulla posted 80 men who were sentenced to death Day 2: 220 more names Day 3: 220 more names Sulla declared himself Dictator, declared: No generals appointed for more than one term No one can hold supreme political oﬃce who hasn’t held smaller oﬃce 79 BCE: Sulla retires and moved to country with wife and boyfriend Matrvius, died 18 months later IV. The First Triumvirate Triumvirate: “three men" No single individual is able to have enough power to have complete control, but shares with 2 others First triumvirate: 1. Pompey 2. Crassus 3. Caesar Pompey and Crassus soon fell out with each other, Caesar convinced them to get supreme oﬃce and command of armies in France V. The Rise and Fall of Julius Caesar 50 BCE Caesar’s victories scared senatorials, so granted Pompey oﬃce to get rid of Caesar Caesar comes slowly (5 years) back to Rome and gains troops 46 BCE: returns as conquering hero, promotes image as patriot Wanted to dilute senatorial family, lowered number New senators were non native Romans Cancels many debts by decree Engages in public works projects that cut ranks of urban poor in half 300,000 homeless to 150,000 in 6 months Put to work as public workers Grants full Roman citizenship to conquered people One weakness: wanted to be king Treated senate with disdain Named himself dictator for life Stabbed to death by senatorial colleagues World History 241 10.8.2015 Unit 4 Lecture 2 (continued) & Unit 5 Lecture 1 V. The Rise and Fall of Julius Caesar (cont.) “Good” dictator More in tune with populares and people As dictator is voted console, then tribune Looking for some constitutional cover for ultimate political cover Founded new colonies and settled landless people Began reducing political corruption Stabbed to death by senatorial colleagues VI. Octavius Caesar: The First Roman Emperor Mark Antony attempted to avenge Casear and take over Rome Form second triumvirate, Lepidus and Octavius (nephew) Cicero: impactful writer, disagreed with Antony Antony hunts him down, kills him, nails hands to speaker platform Antony, Lepidus, and Octavius track Caesar’s assassins and eventually break up Armies of Antony and Octavian face oﬀ outside of Egypt, Octavius wins Antony commits suicide with Cleopatra 29 BCE: Octavian returns having beaten all enemies (32 years old) Named console I. Octavius and the Problem of Power Realized Rome had been at war with itself for too long Wanted to change from Republic to Empire II. Inventing the “Principiate” A. Political Theater in 27 BCE Senate members want him to stay, he agrees to limited role Continued to serve as console Serve as governor of Spain, Gal, and Syria Gave him title of Augustus (respect) B. Princeps and Augustus “ﬁrst citizen” semi oﬃcial status C. Appearance versus Reality 1. The Wealth of Egypt Continued to serve as console Serve as governor of Spain, Gal, and Syria 2. Governorship of Spain, Gaul, Syria Everybody knows he is the most powerful/dangerous man in Rome (money and military) 20 out of 26 legions of army 3. “Imperium Maius”: Augustus is awarded constitutional right of life and death 4. “Tribunician Powers”: protect interest of common people III. Administration and Policy: Government Reform A. Cleaning up the Provinces Semi autonomous with Kingships, governors act as free agents Reworked control of provinces B. Creating a Meritocracy Place men in position of authority based on merit, not on families C. Managing the Poor Not as strong a divide between classes D. Restoring the Military Limiting time spent in military Become land owner E. Moral and Ethical Reform Restored Roman religion Created statues/temples for Jupiter Multicultural, free religion empire Sumptuary legislation: how people can spend money Cap on money spent on dinner, or house party Required all men to marry
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