History Week 10
History Week 10 History 241
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katie Truppo on Saturday August 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 241 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Robert Bast in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Western civilization in History at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.
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Date Created: 08/20/16
World History 241 10.20.2015 Unit 5 Lecture 2 I. The Rise of the Christian Religion A. Jesus of Nazareth and Jewish Messianism Jews believed God would send Messiah to establish their own land and free them from Roman rule Jesus clashed with many religious leaders of his time He was pushing for religion to be deﬁned by pious actions stimulated by compassion Publicly went out of his way to question Jewish laws, Romans had him executed B. Saul/Paul of Tarsus, c. 35 CE Paul was a pharisee who persecuted Christians, had a miraculous conversion and was called Saul Saul believes that Christianity needs to be removed from Judaism, moved to the Gentiles Proclaimed Jewish law is over, and the chosen people are Christians C. Pliny and Trajan: What to do about the “Christian Problem” Christians are seen as a separate sect, aren’t trusted Rome never tried to exterminate Christianity, but tried to enforce conformity II. The Crises of the 3d Century A. The Armies turn to Politics Political breakdown, turns to violence Armies begin to realize that they can name and control emperors 218-268 CE: 50 diﬀerent men claimed imperial title, some ruled only days or weeks 27 gained enough power to actually be recognized as emperors 17 of the 27 were killed by their own troops, 2 committed suicide B. Trouble on the Frontiers Decline in quality of armies Drafting instead of volunteers Plague broke out, wiped out many soldiers C. A Crumbling Economy Runaway inﬂation Debased coinage further D. The Failure of the Urban Bureaucracy 258-278 CE: breakdown of thriving cities Cities struggled to perform political function Turned attention to agriculture Many people become tenant farmers Honestiores: higher classes Humiliores: lower classes (majority of population) World History 241 10.22.2015 Unit 5 Lecture 2 (Continued) III. From Diocletian to Constantine: Imperial Reorganization and the Transformation of Roman Life A. Social Change Septimius Severus: split Roman society into Honestiores (higher) or Humiliores (lower) classes Followed by 50 year period with 50 emperors Diocletian Was a Humiliore, climbed socially in the army, became in charge of calvary 284 CE: becomes emperor B. The Division of the Empire: Tetrarchy Created by Diocletian Divided empire into East and West, then divided again (4 total) 2 Augustus, adopt 2 Ceasars 4 rulers ruling each section Succession was orderly and avoided civil war C. Maximum Wages and Prices To ﬁx inﬂation, he starts over currency Edict on Maximum Prices: established price ceilings on goods and services D. Hereditary Jobs and Residence Allowed people to keep jobs and land based on family E. The Transformation of the Emperor Safeguarding emperor caused it to be hard for emperor to relate to other parts of government and community Senate has little power F. Rome’s “Christian Problem”, continued. 311 CE: Diocletion enacted religious tolerance Constantine disagreed with Christian persecution, fought and won IV. Christianity and the Constantinian Moment A. Constantine and the Edict of Milan Constantine became emperor in 324 CE Edict of Milan: gave Christians rights as a recognized religion Council of Nicaea 325 CE Debated Christ and Christianity Decided Christ was eternal, wrote Nicene Creed