History Week 13
History Week 13 History 241
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katie Truppo on Saturday August 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 241 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Robert Bast in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Western civilization in History at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.
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Date Created: 08/20/16
World History 241 11.17.2015 Unit 7 Lecture 1 I. Background Fundamentals of Medieval Christianity A. The Emergence of the Papacy 1. The "Primacy of Peter” (Petrine Doctrine): Leo I, c. 440 Jerusalem, Antioch, Rome, and Constantinople were major contributors to Christianity/Catholicism, believed they were most important Rome: Bishops make argument that they should be number one Peter was buried in Rome 2. The Gelasian Doctrine c. 490: Sovereign in Spiritual Matters Bishops of Rome (eventually) gain supremacy B. The Cult of the Saints: Friends of God, Patrons, Intercessors Church was under prosecution, caused martyrs After, Christianity became legal Celebrated in graveyards to commemorate martyrs Started praying to patron saints and intercessors C. The Sacramental Power of the Priesthood Curing powers (last rites, exorcism) Eucharist D. Monasticism and the Allure of the Ascetic 1. Desert Fathers and Mothers Individuals displeased with unfaithful parts of Rome became hermits 2. The Benedictine Community Renounced all earthly possessions World History 241 11.19.2015 Unit 7 Lecture 2 II. The “Time of Troubles”, c. 870-1000 A. The Political Fragmentation of the Frankish (Carolingian) Empire: Partible Inheritance and the Treaty of Verdun, 843 CE Perpetual state of uncertainty Civil war between Christian kings B. The New Invaders 1. Muslims Primarily from the south 2. Magyars Masters of horse Had complex bows that ﬁred quickly 3. Vikings Primarily from the north Originally farmers and raiders Needed to sustain themselves outside of their own lands Had to do with climate change (warmth) because they used ships Masters of maritime technology Raided Christian churches III. The Search for Stability: the “First Federal Age”, 9th-10th cents A. The Manor Agricultural production Farmers lost land/freedom/both during political decline, surrendered land for security Became known as serfs B. Feudalism Series of private contracts between warrior that aim to seal trust/loyalty Higher nobility would make contract with lower nobility that often exchanged land for loyalty Lower person is called “vassal" Sealed in holy ceremony where vassal promises loyalty Replaced the State as most eﬀective distribution of power Problems: Multiple vassalage Sub-infeudation Became hereditary Land passed out of control of original loaner C. The “First Feudal Age”:9th-10th Spontaneous development of new institutions formed in times of crisis designed to prevent social collapse Ended in year 1000 IV. Crisis and the Church A. Hard Times as a sign of God’s Disfavor Theophylacts: mid level nobles that controlled ecclesiastical life in Rome Law that everyone donates 1/10 of income to church Pilgramage trade B. Subservience, Simony and the Illegitimacy of the Clergy Period where popes were corrupt th C. The Papal Pornocracy in the 10 Century Sergius impregnates 15 year old, child becomes next pope John the 12th: 18 when named pope, had prostitutes and violated pilgrim women V. The Clash of Church and State Year 1000: end of civil war, caused stability Converted invaders A. Monastic Reform Monastery grows up around Cluny, swears allegiance to papacy Independence from secular authority Vita Apistolica: "apostolic life" was promoted by monks, involved holy poverty B. Episcopal Reform Forbidden from indiscriminately killing C. Papal Reform Moral men want to reclaim papacy Latitude for reform to pass new laws and practices Elevated the authority of papacy so it can’t become a tool of politicians Cardinals now choose popes Excommunicated byzantines
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